March 23: Republic Day in Pakistan (1956); Day of Hungarian–Polish Friendship in Hungary and Poland
- 1879 – Fighting in the War of the Pacific between Chile and a Peruvian–Bolivian alliance, opened with the Battle of Topáter.
- 1905 – 1,500 Cretans, led by Eleftherios Venizelos (pictured), met at the village of Theriso to call for the island’s unification with Greece, beginning the Theriso revolt.
- 1931 – Bhagat Singh, one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, and two others were executed by British authorities.
- 1991 – The Sierra Leone Civil War began when the Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invaded Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh.
- 2001 – The Russian Federal Space Agency forced the space station Mir to deorbit and crash into the Pacific Ocean.