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While fully committed to serious and objective nuclear talks, Iran calls upon 5+1 to reciprocally manifest their commitment
Exclusive Interview with the Honorable Ambassador of Iran to Norway –
Seyed Hossein Rezvani
First of all we would like to thank you on behalf of The Oslo Times for accepting our invitation to share your candid views on the present situation of Iran’s position on nuclear programme and on the events arising in relation to it.
It is indeed a privilege to have you on The Oslo Times panel of exclusive interviews and we feel truly proud in welcoming you here.
TOT: Recently the talks between Iran and P5+1 took place in Moscow. Is the outcome of talks was satisfactory to Iran and its interests?
In the name of God, the Companion-ate, the Merciful
Iran’s Envoy: While fully committed to serious and objective nuclear talks, Iran calls upon 5+1 to reciprocally manifest their commitment.In recent talks between Iran and 5+1 (five permanent members of the Security Council plus Germany) in Moscow, both sides agreed that a technical group should discuss in detail the proposals by each side and hammer out a framework or a road map for the continuation of the talks. So a technical group is going to have a new round of talks on Tuesday in Istanbul.
It is clear that some members of 5+1 for whatever reasons apparently political ones, are not forthcoming and serious enough for finding a solution. If the talks do not proceed as it should be, another standoff in the talks can be expected. Therefore, this could be considered as a critical point in Iran’s talks with some members of 5+1.
TOT: With worsening Iran’s nuclear case with the international community, especially; with the West and the constant failures of the series of talks has resulted into more energy insecurities in the world. How Iran view these recent developments and escalations in the nuclear policy debate?
Iran’s Envoy: The USA and certain Europeans have said that they are going to increase their pressure and sanctions against Iran and this by itself indicates that they are not willing to engage with Tehran in a meaningful dialogue.
It is to be reiterated that , oil embargo against Iran leads to further disruptions and insecurities of world energy market and consequently adds up to financial crisis in Europe . The 1+5 non-compliance with guiding principles of nuclear talks established during Istanbul II talks and absence of cooperative approach on their side is the primary cause for unsuccessful Baghdad and Moscow negotiations. Therefore it is necessary to address this issue and shed lights on the latest developments and to analyze the issue from the view point of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
What are the major obstacles or issues faced by Iran during talks with P5+1 group countries?
The main obstacle in Moscow talks as well as in Iran’s previous talks with 5+1 in Baghdad was the issue of Iran’s right to enrich uranium. This right stems from International law and Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). According to NPT developing, research, production and use of nuclear energy and having full national nuclear fuel cycle and enrichment of uranium for peaceful purposes are among the inherent and inalienable rights of each sovereign member state.
One major issue during discussions with 5+1 in recent rounds of talks was an attempt to work out a framework for a comprehensive and targeted dialogue. Iran strongly believes that talks should not be for the sake of talks. Rather they should be conducted on good will, mutual respect and in a spirit of cooperation which can lead to tangible results. Therefore attitude and actions that go contrary to good will, spirit of cooperation and mutual respect are counterproductive and should be avoided.
TOT: How Iran views the consideration or inclusion of NPT in the talks? And the kind of advantages which it brings with it for Iran?
Iran’s Envoy: NPT should also be considered as the benchmark for talks and all parties have to commit themselves to the rights and obligations specified in the NPT. Iran is strongly opposed to any preconditions particularly when they are outside the framework of NPT. Genuine commitment and cooperative approach are essential tools to enable both sides to successfully embark upon a new process of fruitful talks, which are comprehensive, sustainable and constructive. Iran is willing to have a mutually agreed long term solution. This could only come through tangible actions and on the basis of step by step approach, based upon principle of reciprocity. Iran is of the opinion that the legitimate rights as well as concerns of both parties should be fully recognized and addressed in an objective and comprehensive manner.
The main Iranian objective in the negotiations as well as cooperation with the IAEA is removal of any misunderstanding regarding its peaceful, transparent and legal nuclear activities within the framework of NPT. The Fatwa of the Supreme Leader is indeed supporting these facts. Iran believes that confidence building is a two-way street. In this regard Iran wants to normalize its nuclear file at the Board of Governors of IAEA by total termination of politicized and illegitimate Security Council as well as unilateral sanctions.
Iran is entitled to full enjoyment of its inalienable rights to peaceful nuclear technology as stipulated in the NPT and in compliance with regulations of the IAEA. While looking forward to achieve a sustainable nuclear cooperation and transfer of advanced technologies, Iran also wishes to conclude a comprehensive agreement on collective commitments in the areas of economic, political, security and international cooperation.
Is there any proposal that has been submitted by Iran in the recently conducted talks?
In recent talks, the 5+1 presented a proposal as a road map to bridge differences and fined a diplomatic solution for Iran’s nuclear issue, but they said proposal is suffering from some shortcomings both in context and in the substance. The said deficiencies would be elaborated in following paragraphs.
Iran in turn proposal “a framework for comprehensive and targeted dialogue for long term cooperation among 7 countries” which consists of guiding principles, objectives, issues , structure of the process and reciprocal steps that would be explained. Furthermore, there will be a review of the right to enrichment in various international treaties and conferences such as NPT, the Special Session of General Assembly devoted to Disarmament in 1978, the Review Conferences of the NPT in 1975 and 2010 and the statement of the Non-aligned Foreign Ministers Meeting in May 2012 in Egypt.
TOT: What are the facts that have remained unheard or which the people are unaware about ‘Iran’s Nuclear Program’ and its policies towards it?
Iran’s Envoy: Some Facts on Iran’s Peaceful Nuclear Issue
•The Fatwa of Iran’s Supreme leader on nuclear weapons, 19 February, 2012:
“The Iranian nation has never pursued and will never pursue nuclear weapons. There is no doubt that the decision makers in the countries opposing us know well that Iran is not after nuclear weapons, because the Islamic Republic, logically, religiously and theoretically, considers the possession of nuclear weapons a grave sin and believes the proliferation of such weapons is senseless, destructive and dangerous.”
•Under International Law, “to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy, to have full national nuclear fuel cycle, and to enrich Uranium for peaceful purposes” is an inherent and inalienable right of each sovereign State.
•Taking into account the importance of diverse portfolio of energy sources, each State also has the “sovereign right to define its national energy policies, including fuel-cycle policies, without external pressure or interference.”
•These rights are based on the principle of “sovereignty of States” and also have been reaffirmed in particular by the NPT.
•Neither the NPT nor the IAEA Statute or Safeguards agreements and even the Additional Protocol, prohibit enrichment.
•In exercising these rights, NPT Parties have legal “obligation” “to prevent diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons.”
•Iran is firmly determined to exercise its inherent rights in all areas of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and fully committed to its obligations.
•Iran’s cooperation with the IAEA and the Agency’s inspections in Iran are unprecedented in the history of the IAEA.
•Continuous inspections in the most robust and intrusive manner, more than 4000 man-day routine inspections, and over 100 intrusive inspections are only some examples of Iran’s cooperation with the IAEA.
•To date, no single evidence of diversion to military purposes has been found.
•Latest IAEA report corroborates Iran’s cooperation with Agency and peaceful nature of its nuclear activities. It states: “the Agency continues to conduct verification activities under Iran’s Safeguards Agreement” and “continues to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material at the nuclear facilities and Locations outside facilities declared by Iran under its Safeguards Agreement.”
•According to the report, despite sanctions, Iran’s nuclear activities, in particular in the area of enrichment and enrichment related technology are progressing.
•The said report states as well that Iran is not implementing Additional Protocol. The answer is clear: Additional Protocol is voluntary in nature and Iran has no obligation to implement it.
•To accept the Agency’s request to visit Parchin military complex does not fall within Iran’s legal obligations with respect to the NPT.
•Despite this, according to the IAEA’s November 2011 report, “the Agency was permitted to visit the site twice in 2005 and did not uncover anything of relevance.”
•As a confidence-building measure, Iran stands ready to provide access to Parchin, only when the agreement on modality is reached with the IAEA.
•Iran’s Natanz and Fordow facilities have been declared to the IAEA well in advance of the due date and in accordance with the Iranian obligations under IAEA Safeguards Agreement. Their activities continue to be under the IAEA constant monitoring.
•Earlier this year, the IAEA Deputy Director General for Safeguards visited Natanz and Fordow as well as other Iranian nuclear sites, including Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, Reactor and Heavy Water Production Plant at Arak, and the conversion and fuel fabrication facilities at Esfahan.
•Iran also provided the IAEA Deputy Director General access to an installation where Research & Development on advanced centrifuges was taking place, which is beyond Iranian obligations and also unprecedented in the history of IAEA inspections.
•In spite of the fact that the IAEA did not fulfill its obligations including delivery to Iran of the documents on the “Alleged Studies”, Iran did submit to the Agency its assessment in a 117-page document.
•As during recent talks with P5+1in Moscow demonstrated, Iran is determined to a faithful negotiations on interested issues to both parties based on mutual respect and a win-win solution.
•Iran proposed a road-map for negotiations which includes guiding principles, structure, issues and steps, according to that any step by one party should be responded by a homogeneous and simultaneous step by the other party.
•Iran made it clear that ambiguous and unrealistic proposals are counterproductive and may lead to more uncertainty between the parties.
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The world has known, for centuries, extremism where the norms are breached by those who wish to carry on with their un-adjustable approach in the society. It flourishes where there is no acceptance to the national political system or the existence of suppressive local customs. As the human civilization progresses and develops complexities in terms of territory, race, linguistic, tribe, culture, religion and many such things which were created and formed by man to make his own world of creations and justice.
Extremism has existed in each and every corner of this world since ages. No matter which religion you follow or believe, you will come across a stream of generation which believes in going beyond the defined norms of that sect. Earlier when the world was witnessing revolutions headed by the numerous prophets in every age of the angelic era the extremism was defined on the religious terms and was being termed as the religious extremism whose motive was to just spread their religion on to others. Then as the world moves and various distinct religions established their sphere this divided the entire generations of the human race into world of racism and discrimination. The new forms of once a single meaning word of extremism whose definition used to be just one and on one ground now was on the path of the transformation where the differences in the ideology which the various religions brought with them started to create the fault line between the personal norms and the norms of others who do not follow your norms. The most long serving example of this divide which goes beyond the lines of every norm set by the human society is between the Jews and the other global religions which has given rise to countless forms of extremism along with their own senseless and inhuman reasons. In today’s world which has survived the worst wars, genocides and natural disasters has now come to a point where it faces the threat of extremism in various forms and it kinds.
Modern and Historical forms of Extremism as defined by many scholars:
1.) Racial / Ethnical: This form is one of the forms of extremism which was developed in the era of imperialism when powers from around the world were fighting wars to establish their foothold and when they started to indulge in the slave trade. This form over the years has developed into a much common and wide spread form of extremism where it too has developed many sub categories of its own like: racial extremism against foreign immigrants / developing of gethos or restricted neighborhoods for specific community / organized racial or ethical gangs like Skin Heads of UK specifically in London, Nazis of Russia specifically in Moscow.
2.) Cultural Extremism: Cultural extremism happens when a community / state or a person forces others to accept its culture and its norms without giving or recognizing targeted community / society / group/ person its culture and values. The laws related to Blasphemy sometimes shows and present the picture of forcible and unacceptable behavior of one’s culture and acceptance to it which are mostly designed to curtail it and suppress the rise of others other than the state. Just like the laws related to Blasphemy in Pakistan.
3.) Religious Extremism: When a religious group of fundamentalists supports an ideology which goes beyond the set and accepted norms of religion and when other religions and neutrals within their own society start to feel their unwanted enforcement the modern examples where it has existed throughout in the countries are: Arab Jewish conflict, Pakistan Republic and Fundamentalists, Taliban etc.
4.) Theological Extremism: When a particular religious faction imposes its belief or tries to suppress another of its kind with a different theological setup nevertheless this kind of large scale wide spread extreme perceptions and unaccepted suppression can be seen in the more organized political and recognizable framework of a new political distinction of extremism which is fascism.
The countries where one can witness these kinds of extremities of distinct theologies. Shiaite Iran suppressing Sunni minority, Alawite Minority regime suppressing and enforcing norms on Sunni majority and Kurds in Syria, Kurds and Shia minorities being suppressed by Sunni majority in Iraq, various ideological factions in Pakistan and Afghanistan suppressing each other’s and enforcing their ideologies in forcible manner by implementing extreme measures to spread their cause and mindsets.
Theological differences in Hinduism and Sikhism in India, Various existing ideologies among Buddhism and Buddhist majority countries like the one among Chinese Han and Tibetans, Mongoloids and Chinese, Differences between and un-acceptance in Indian – Chinese.
5.) Political extremism: It belongs mostly to a much more advanced form of extremism known as fascism where the leader and his regime has national interests at large for the entire country instead of self-satisfying public interests as in democracies. This kind of extremism exists in the societies and flourishes where public is upset with the national form of governmental setup and policies, extreme national isolation in the state, high level of suppression and discrimination among various communities in the state and enforcement of unacceptable laws which hinders and endangers their communal or linguistic or religious identities. The best real life examples of it can be seen in history as well as in today’s world like Nazism in Germany which gone against the existence of Jewish community which faced a horrible holocaust at the hands of state. Syrian Alawite regime of Assad and his son Bashar, Late Col; Gaddafi and his rule of fist in Libya over other tribes and communities, Iranian Shiaite regime in Iran suppressing other minorities like Sunni, Bahai, Zoroastrian. Burmese Military Junta headed government, China’s communist government and its suppressive policies over its people and other communities living in autonomous regions and even sometimes goes beyond the national boundaries of it like affecting Taiwan, Mongolia, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, Japan, India, Russian far east, Hong Kong, Tibet, Xinjiang. Serbia – Bosnia crisis, Kosovo crisis, Belarus, Saudi Arabia’s monarchy famous for its beheading convictions and other extreme judicial measures. Suppressive policies of North Korean regime and its Kim family.
6.) Militancy / Terrorism / Revolutionaries: This is the most modern form of extremism which has now evolved as one of the most sophisticated forms of extremism challenging the entire global political, economic, bureaucratic setup of the global community. These kinds of extreme existence and buildup works like a parallel government and system to the national framework where the national domain exists within the purview of the state but has no control and jurisdiction over the social setup and accessibility to the affected region sometimes even the government too gets involved in taking the extreme measures like by implementing draconian laws which provides much larger role to the defense forces and its paramilitaries.
This has now become the most visible and practicable form of extremism which has lured and is attracting millions across the globe to carry out its revolution through destructive means. The examples of this kind can be easily seen and monitored in various countries which too includes some of the most prosperous and developed countries like: Chechnya in Russian Federation, Naxalities / Maoists / North – East Separatist Groups / Khalistanis / Kashmir freedom movement in India, Maoist movement in Nepal, erstwhile LTTE in Sri-Lanka, Separatist movements in Indonesia, Baluchistan freedom movement, Waziristan – FATA regions, Gilgit – Baltistan, Azad Kashmir, Sind freedom movement in Pakistan, Kurdistan freedom movement in Iraq, Separatist movement in Yemen, IRA in Northern Ireland – UK, PLO movement in Palestine and Israel, Turkistan freedom movement – Xinjiang, Tibetan movement in China, Militancy affected Northern Burma, Somalia – terrorist ruled state, DRC and ROC in twin Congo’s affected by prolonged civil war, militancy and revolutionaries movements and their buildup can be seen in throughout African continent the countries which are affected are: Liberia, Somalia, DOC, ROC, Central African Republic, Chad, Western Sahara – Morocco, Angola, Uganda, Rwanda who witnessed history’s worst genocide, Sudan – South Sudan, Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast. ETA armed campaign in Basque province of Spain. FARC, ELN, Para military in Columbia, Chechnya crisis in Russia, Hindu – Sikh – Muslim terror outfits and organization activities in India.
7.) Lingual extremism: This basically reflects the un-identification of other spoken languages in the state over the national lingua-franca chosen or decided by the state. It is also one of the most ancient form of extremism where state forcibly implements the policy of on other lingual communities and their stream of dialects spoken by them are denied the national recognition and importance as an accepted workable script. The state imposes and forces the alien communities to learn and accept officially the national language or other as chosen official by it on the specific community or tribe. The examples of its kind are: republics or communities of central Asian and eastern Europe under Soviet control were forced to adopt Russian as their mother tongue while their local dialects or even practicing of it or studying were banned or in some areas restricted to a confined quarters. Autonomous regions and communities living in these regions in China face the same, many tribal areas and the communities living in these regions in India also witness the extreme enforcement policies or authoritarian behavior by the local authorities to accept Hindi as their language. Most of South Asian Pacific countries too witnessing the same kind of extreme measures taken by their respective governments sometimes in the shape of judicial framework, sometimes through research policies in the national or local language in the name of making it more compatible to outside world. The most extreme behavior was seen during the imperial era or the age of colonialism when European powers took some extreme measures and gone beyond the human norms to force the acceptance of their national languages like English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish etc to be accepted by their slave and the communities living in their captured / invaded colonies as their mother language. The example of European colonial era’s lingual extremism can be seen in the countries of Africa where French is the most widely spoken language of many countries as their national language, Some countries of Asia like India and other South Asian countries where English has become the second official language after their national language, Oceania – Australia and New Zealand where English is treated as the mother tongue even of the natives who have lived there since the early years of human civilization, South and Latin Americas where on one hand Brazil has become the largest country outside Portugal to speak Portuguese as the national language and with the rest of countries in the continent adopted Spanish as their mother tongue hence; shredding their national and cultural identities defined by their extinct lingual patterns, North America where English has become their mother tongue and in some quarters being a French exception like Quebec in Canada.
India, the country ruled by a number of colonial powers has seen it happening in its own boundary where in one part Portuguese is still widely spoken and is an official language of many states ruled by Portugal, French also has an official status in some states which were once ruled by and got independence from France and it is the second most widely spoken European language in India after English.
As discussed in these points Fascism also reflects the organized form of self-styled governance by the state where nationalism is of the outmost importance and personal priorities has no space in the national agenda.
These kinds of regimes and ideologies are popular and exist where national spirit is very high and parties gains the support by large national majorities. Its major and sole aim is to live up to its nation and increase the level of national identity in the international arena against the more democratic and public favored policies.
Fascism can never stand against the regimes which support democracy and where demand for values of human rights is more important for the public. Fascist regimes practice the single party form of government where only the ruling party has vested powers for its interest prioritizing the national interests of the country while being expansionist in nature. Fascism introduced no systematic exposition of its ideology or purpose other than a negative reaction against socialist and democratic egalitarianism.
Many says mostly Europeans that Fascism was born during the pre-world War II era but my point is to bring to the notice of all those who have shrunken its definition and its origins. Fascism does not belong or was born during Hitler’s time even though the term got originated by then but if we have look at the history the old form of fascism has always remained in the kingdoms or sometimes we call it more popularly monarchies. Both the systems have many similarities in functioning, in terms of nationalism, rulings, suppression and even in its authoritarian nature like in absolute monarchies there is only a family who rules the nation and its people, which has the vast interests of the supreme national priorities going beyond even the borders of its own kingdom.
Fascism became advanced during WWII when Hitler and Mussolini came to power and gave the new definition of a rule which, though, was directly controlled by a leader and single party but has the reference towards the kind of royal functioning just like in many existing absolute monarchies for example of Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Bahrain where people have no say or control over their rights and their choice but have the acceptance of the suppressive policies formulated by their direct rulers or the dictators. In the same manner Fascism is a term which gives an organized and sophisticated meaning to its older version of monarchy.
The major difference between the two is that in fascist regimes people are from general background or are revolutionaries who have large national agendas for their people and nations but has no values for human rights as if the people has their rights then the nation cannot be united at one front to serve the common interest of the country for which the leader who is leading a fascist state has much larger role to play for building the nationalism. Fascism though is an umbrella word for most of the direct single party regimes which though have the characteristics of fascism but also differentiate on many grounds with each other as these regimes are mostly based on self-styled rule of their respective leaders where the difference lies in terms of the kind of ideology being followed and the nature of their national interests. However these regimes no matter how much they differentiate with each other’s similar format they have at least some characteristics in them always and these are:
1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism – Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.
2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights – Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of “need.” The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.
3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause – The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial, ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.
4. Supremacy of the Military – Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.
5. Rampant Gender bias-nous – The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution.
6. Controlled Mass Media – Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.
7. Obsession with National Security – Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.
8. Religion and Government are intertwined – Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government’s policies or actions.
9. Corporate Power is protected – The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often is the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.
10. Labor Power is suppressed – Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed.
11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts – Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked.
12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment – Under fascist regimes, the police is given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.
13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption – Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.
14. Fraudulent Elections – Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.
Overall when we say and have a look extremism and fascism no matter how differentiated they look but both these terms are just the two faces of one coin which has only hurt and wounded the human civilization since the time unknown sometimes in the name of religion, sometimes in the name of culture / community and sometimes just for their own personal interests. These terms are not and nothing to do with any religion or community or culture it exists everywhere and in every community or religion no matter whether it is Muslims, Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists or anyone.
The media and the responsible agencies must take the responsibility to come out of their stereotyping nature and vision. & stop propaganda about which has nothing to do with humanity and justice. I request on the behalf of The Oslo Times team and network that media should stop making the villains heroes and the heroes into villain. Media is an eye of the public and ear of its nerve so, if it plays the irresponsible role then who the public would trust and believe.
Samarinda, East Kalimantan
December 20, 2011
Marsih, An employee of Resort City Police Samarinda, East Kalimantan, poured by gasoline and burned her own husband. She suffered burns up to 60 percent. The act was done in front of the child victim. It was done by Sumantri because he is reluctant to divorce from his wife. Not only Marsih,Sumantri also affected by a bolt of fire and suffered 40 percent burns. Both were treated at the Islamic Hospital Samarinda. Currently the police are still asking the details number of witnesses from the family. Perpetrator closely guarded for fear of escape.
Based on Act No. 23 of 2004 on the Elimination of Domestic Violence Law of Indonesia; domestic violence is any action against a person, especially women, which result in misery or suffering physical, sexual, psychological, and / or negligence of household including threat to commit acts, coercion, or deprivation of liberty against the law within the domestic sphere.
Elimination of Domestic Violence Law was born through a long struggle for about seven years conducted the women’s movement activists of the share element. In Indonesia, a formal legally, these provisions come into force since 2004. The mission of this Act is an effort, endeavor for the elimination of domestic violence. With this provision, means the state could attempt to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence, prosecution of domestic violence and protect victims of domestic violence.
Something that previously could not happen, because it is considered as an internal matter of one’s family. The reason is expressly said that, the action physical violence, psychological, sexual, and neglect of household (economic abandonment) done within the domestic sphere is a crime. These actions may be common and can occur between the husband to his wife and vice versa, or parents against their children. As legislation that requires special arrangements, in addition to criminal sanctions contained setting, this law also regulates the procedural law, the obligation of the state in providing immediate protection to victims who report. Thus, it can be said that this provision is an important legal breakthrough for efforts to uphold human rights, especially protection against those who have been harmed in a family or household order.
In numbers, wives who are victims of domestic violence was 96 percent, of the total 136 thousand more cases of violence in personal relationships. The pattern is dominated by domestic violence sexual and psychological violence. While physical violence is smaller in number under the economic violence. Violence against women also occurs during courtship, violence by ex-husband or ex-boyfriend, and against domestic workers. Violence against women as whole rise 263 percent to 143.586 cases during 2009 (January to December).
Causes of domestic violence
In Indonesia, domestic violence is difficult to resolve, it is because many people who do not know that their actions or action that they are received from their partner is included in domestic violence, and perpetrators may also feel that his actions were protected by the prevailing norms in society, that is not polite when intervene in the household of others when there are fights (internal matter). This norm has indirectly led to the perpetrator feel protected from state laws when they are apply to domestic violence.
It also can cause by:
1) The public raising boys by growing confidence that the boys should be strong, brave and intolerant.
2) Men and women are not positioned equally in society.
3) Perceptions of violence in the household must be closed because it is a family problem and not a social problem.
4) an erroneous understanding of religious teachings about the rules educate wives, wives to their husbands obedience, respect for the position of her husband resulting in the perception that men should control women.
5) Culture that wife relies on her husband, especially economics.
6) Personality and psychological conditions of husband who is not stable.
7) Have experienced violence in childhood.
8) Culture that men are considered superior and women inferior.
9) Doing imitation, especially the boys who live with parents who often do violence to his mother or himself.
Effort to recover the victims on domestic violence
Elimination of Domestic Violence Law is the first regulation governing the rights of victims. Rights of victims of domestic violence in the Elimination of Domestic Violence Law in Article 10 which include the following:
1. protection of the family, police, prosecutors, courts, advocates, social institutions, or any other party either temporarily or based on the determination of a court protection order;
2. Health services in accordance with medical needs;
3. Special handling related to the confidentiality of the victim;
4. Assistance by social workers and legal assistance at every level of the examination process in accordance with the provisions of legislation; and
5. Spiritual guidance services.
Efforts to prevent domestic violence are a mutual obligation between the government and society. This corresponds to a locus of domestic violence in the private sphere, so the government cannot simply go in and monitor the household directly. And so we need community involvement in monitoring and preventing the occurrence of domestic violence in the neighborhood. The obligation of this community accommodated in articles 14 and 15 of Elimination of Domestic Violence Law. Even in chapter 15 are detailed on duty “every person who heard, saw, or know the occurrence of domestic violence shall make efforts in accordance with the limit of his ability to a) prevent the continuation of crime; b) provide protection to victims; c) to provide relief emergency; and d) assist the application process protection setting.
Article 44 of Law Number 23 Year 2004 on domestic violence.
- Anyone committing acts of violence, physical within the domestic sphere as referred to in Article 5 letter a shall be punished with imprisonment of 5 (five) years or a maximum fine of Rp 15,000,000.00 (fifteen million rupiahs).
- In the event that acts as referred to in paragraph (1) resulted in the victim had fallen ill or serious injury, shall be punished with imprisonment of 10 (ten) years or a fine of not more Rp30.000.000, 00 (thirty million rupiahs).
- In the event that acts as referred to in paragraph (2) resulted in the death of the victim, shall be punished with imprisonment of 15 (fifteen) years or a maximum fine of Rp 45,000,000.00 (forty five million rupiahs).
It not only happens in Indonesia but even in developed and advance countries like Australia recently Rajini Narayan who killed her husband by burning first his penis and then him completely. Have a look at the full story what had gone between them and male who think himself always superior and powerful to woman. However it seems like slowly but gradually women are claiming their rights which they could have claimed much earlier.
A woman who burned her husband to death after “snapping momentarily” has become the third battered wife in seven years to avoid jail for manslaughter in Australian court history.
The Supreme Court today suspended Rajini Narayan’s six-year sentence for killing her cheating husband, Satish, in December 2008.
Justice John Sulan said the killing was due to “momentary” anger and “muddled” thinking, and that Narayan was truly remorseful for her actions.
“Although it is often said … that a suspended sentence is not a sentence at all, it’s a real sentence and can be brought into effect if there is a failure to comply with specified conditions,” he said.
“It is wrong to regard suspended sentences as letting an offender walk free as if he or she has not been punished.
“It seems (Narayan) has suffered a great deal already.”
Narayan, who sat with her back to the public gallery for much of the hearing, fought back tears as the sentence was announced.
Her eldest daughter ran to the front of the court room to embrace and kiss her mother.
Narayan, 46, is the third woman in seven years to avoid an immediate jail term for manslaughter.
In 2004, Riverland woman Gwenda Elaine Savcic received a suspended three-year term for killing her husband, Mark.
Savcic fatally stabbed her husband with a samurai sword after silently enduring 19 years of abuse at his hands.
Justice Ted Mullighan ruled the stabbing – the first time Savcic had ever stood up to her husband – was an act of “excessive self-defence”.
In 2009, Noreen Jessamine Weetra received a suspended five-year term for killing her partner, Ross Owen Calyun.
Police had been called to the couple’s home 10 times in three years before Weetra struck back, stabbing Calyun in the heart in front of her children.
Justice Margaret Nyland dubbed her actions “rare and exceptional”, and therefore deserving of a “merciful approach” in sentencing.
Narayan stood trial in the Supreme Court for murder last year.
Prosecutors had alleged she deliberately set her husband, Satish, alight in December 2008 after confronting him about his affair.
Narayan denied this, saying her intention was to “circumcise and purify” her husband who had physically and verbally abused her for 22 years.
She said she wanted to “burn a dot on his penis” with petrol and an “angel candle” she had been given by a fortune teller so that he would not leave her for the other woman.
She compared her “bizarre” idea to the Hindu love story of Lord Ram, who proved the purity of his wife, Sita, with fire after rescuing her from a demon king.
“It would be like circumcision, or just like he placed that red dot on my forehead at the wedding,” she said at trial.
“It was like I had all the powers of the goddess to save my husband, my lord … it did not occur to me that it was going to be dangerous.”
Narayan admitted losing control and throwing the flame and accelerant onto Satish when he called her a “fat bitch”.
Jurors accepted her version of events, acquitting her of murder and finding her guilty of the lesser charge of manslaughter.
In sentencing today, Justice Sulan said Narayan had “deified” her husband and was “shattered” by his betrayal.
He said there was “no doubt” her thinking at the time was “unrealistic, muddled and illogical”.
“For the first time in your life you had confronted your husband, had found the courage to be assertive to the person who had mistreated you for 20 years,” he said.
“His response was to treat you with disdain, dismiss you and turn his back to you (and) you snapped.”
Justice Sulan further ordered Narayan be under Correctional Services supervision for two years, and undertake psychological counseling as ordered.
As woman is becoming more aware and man are becoming more brutal and unforgiving the silence of her soul has now reached at the point of final eruption where now the hidden dark side of once this magnificent human being has now showing her dark side. Man and Woman are just like two sides of one coin and have remained till date but neither of them has ever appreciated or complemented each other. The narrow mind set and venerable behavior of man develops a quality of a deep anger and an uncompromising behavior whereas fear of losing and possessiveness have made woman more reserve and of conservative behavior but as the world becomes more aware of its rights and responsibilities woman too are becoming more open minded and are being more aggressive towards their aims and their self being. This has evolved new twisted positions in the un-balanced relations of opposite genders.
These cases are the new signs of beginning of a new era where woman shares the power in this male dominant world.
Dollar was ruling the world and was surviving the severe blows of world crisis and had survived the worst wars in human history but there was something which its competitors were planning from decades to launch it with a bang and end the monopoly of Dollar in global market as favorite trading currency and the moment came on January 1 of 1999 when the world was sleeping enjoying its dreams of midnight – the Euro was launched which set the benchmark in a bloc trading and regional single currency market.
From its start Euro has remained on stronger than dollar but this strengthen has eaten the coffers of the prosperous European Union which after completing the struggling decade with Euro highlights is now knocking every door of its members and have approached the non Euro zone members of the EU. This crisis and the frequent exchange fluctuations had resulted in severe loss to the non European economies like Libya, Iran and major trading nations which have lost billions of their hard earned For-ex reserves while the first recession of 21st century brought shock and awe situation to the entire world but something which ended the parallel dominance of Euro to Dollar and now when the aftershocks too have lowered down Euro Zone face a grime future with weakening and struggling economies which though are counted always as advanced and developed but has never remained the world economic drivers thus enjoying the EU reformed policy benefits and relying on its member nations like Germany, France, Italy, Spain.
The chain of strides was broken by Spain when its economy collapsed under the rubble of the hyper blooming concrete structural market and then the other characters of the card palace were torn away in the acute shortage of jobs and stability. The sleeping reality of Euro under the hidden carpets was exposed to the wrath of already recessionary top economies. This has again build the trust of public in Dollar which from last one year which after the launch of its rival Euro zone was on a diminishing side. 2011 has been a great year for Dollar which has taken back its lost crown as the world’s favorite currency. The complex nature of the Euro Zone crisis and its unpromising bleak future will benefits the Dollar to grow more and maintain its economics even though it still is on a weaker side in terms its exchange value to Euro.
Ref : original draft http://theoslotimes.com
Warning: This article contains some disturbing content and images. Viewers discretion is advised.
From centuries human civilizations have practiced cannibalism – a practice which not only haunts a week hearts but it spreads a dangerous culture which endangers the entire survival of human existence. Almost every tribal culture with few exceptions nurtured and has enjoyed exotic flavors’ of the great human flesh but those who do are unaware that the cuisine they ate is toxic, is full of all those diseases which the person diluting in their intestines will affect their own. Cannibal culture goes in two ways one by killing a person and feasting on him whereas other follows the dead to be eaten by his relatives. The former called homicidal cannibalism while later called as necro-cannibalism. Though the world has come ages and has made strides in science and civilization however the situation in many parts of the world still remains the same.
There are many countries where even now to this date cannibalism is still not consider as sin and is being practiced in some or the other form either in the name of religion or culture or habit.
Tribes which are known to practice cannibalism across the world:
Tribes in Americas practiced cannibalism:
Akokisa – USA
The Akokisa, like the Atakapa, practiced cannibalism, which may have been connected to their religious beliefs. Cannibalistic feasts were described by Simars de Bellisle, who observed them firsthand when Akokisa people captured him when his ship wrecked was Frenchman (1695-1763). His diary was the first hand account of these natives practicing homicidal cannibalism.
The first European contact with the Atakapa may have been in 1528 by survivors of the Spanish Pánfilo de Narváez expedition. The name Atakapa is a Choctaw name meaning “people eater” (hattak ‘person’, apa ‘to eat’), a reference to the practice of ritual cannibalism. The Gulf coast peoples practiced this on their enemies.
A French explorer, Francois Simars de Bellisle, lived among the Atakapa from 1719 to 1721. He described Atakapa cannibalistic feasts which he observed firsthand. The practice of cannibalism likely had a religious, ritualistic basis.
The French historian Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, lived in Louisiana, from 1718 to 1734, a total of 16 years. He wrote:
Along the west coast, not far from the sea, inhabit the nation called Atacapas [sic], that is, Man-Eaters, being so called by the other nations on account of their detestable custom of eating their enemies, or such as they believe to be their enemies. In the vast country there are no other cannibals to be met with besides the Atacapas; and since the French have gone among them, they have raised in them so great an horror of that abominable practice of devouring creatures of their own species, that they have promised to leave it off: and, accordingly, for a long time past we have heard of no such barbarity among them. —Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz
Harakmbut – Peru
The Harakmbut are an indigenous tribe living in the Peruvian Amazon Tobias Schneebaum an American artist, anthropologist, and AIDS activist has witnessed cannibalism ritual of Harakmbut tribe. Which was mentioned as about him “After hitch-hiking from New York to Peru, he lived with the Harakmbut people for seven months, where he slept with his male subjects and claimed to have joined the tribe in cannibalism on one occasion”.
The Wari also practiced cannibalism, specifically mortuary cannibalism. This is a form of endo-cannibalism, or the consumption of members of one’s own society. This was done as a form of utmost respect to those who have passed.
Tribes in Europe practiced cannibalism
Androphagi – Russia
Androphagi (Greek: for “man-eaters) was ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (according to Herodotus), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnepr and Don. These people may have assisted the Scythians when King Darius the Great led a Persian invasion into what is now Southern Russia to punish the Scythians for their raids into the Achaemenid Empire.
The Gutasaga tells of the blóts on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea: Before this time, and a long time thereafter, they believed in groves and barrows, sanctuaries, and sacred enclosures and in the pagan gods. They sacrificed (for?) their sons, daughters and cattle, and practiced blóts with food and drink. This they did due to their superstition. The whole country (the althing) had the largest blót with sacrifice of people, otherwise everything had its blót and smaller things had smaller blóts with cattle, food and drinks. They were called food-, or cooking-brethren, because they prepared the meals together.
Tribes in Asia practiced cannibalism
Until the 1950s, their remote and harsh location isolated the Asmat from other peoples. It was not until the mid-20th century that they came into regular contact with outsiders. Initially, the Asmat had a reputation as headhunters and cannibals, and were left undisturbed.
In the 1950s the neurological disease Kuru was discovered in the South Fore. The local tradition of ritual cannibalism of their dead had led to an epidemic, with approximately 1000 deaths from 1957 to 1960. Upon the death of an individual, the maternal kin were responsible for the dismemberment of the corpse. The women would remove the arms and feet, strip the limbs of muscle, remove the brain and cut open the chest in order to remove internal organs.
Shirley Lindenbaum, one of the early kuru researchers, states that kuru victims were highly regarded as sources of food, because the layer of fat on victims who died quickly resembled pork. Women also were known to feed morsels – such as human brain and various parts of organs – to their children and the elderly.
It is currently believed that kuru was transmitted among the South Fore through participation in such cannibalism, although opportunistic infection through wounds when removing infectious tissue from the corpse can be assumed to be another cause, as not all cases can be explained by ingestion of infectious tissue.
Though the Fore would not eat those who had apparently died of disease, and so did not so easily catch other diseases via cannibalism, they believed that kuru was a mental affliction caused by a curse rather than a physical disease.
The kuru epidemic reached its height in the 1960s, having recorded over 1,100 deaths of the South Fore from kuru between 1957 and 1968. The vast majority of victims among the South Fore were women. In fact, eight times more women than men contracted the disease. It later affected small children and the elderly at a high rate as well.
Lindenbaum and Vincent Zigas worked among the South Fore in New Guinea trying to identify and catalog the symptoms and possible behavior causing the disease. Daniel Carleton Gajdusek also traveled there in 1957, to study disease patterns in indigenous and isolated populations.Lindenbaum, Zigas, and Gajdusek were all crucial to explaining the specifics of kuru to the rest of the world.
Although the prohibition of cannibalism in the 1950s led to the steady decline of the epidemic, it has lingered into the present century by an incubation period that can exceed 50 years.
Issedones – Central Asian countries
The Byzantine scholiast John Tzetzes, who cites the Issedones generally “in Scythia” present day Central Asian Region, quotes some lines to the effect that the Issedones “exult in long flowing hair” and mentions the one-eyed men to the north. According to Herodotus, the Issedones practiced ritual cannibalism of their elderly males, followed by a ritual feast at which the deceased patriarch’s family ate his flesh, gilded his skull, and placed it in a position of honor much like a cult image.
The archeologists E. M. Murphy and J. P. Mallory of the Queen’s University of Belfast, have argued (Antiquity, 74 (2000):388-94) that Herodotus was mistaken in his interpretation of what he imagined to be cannibalism. Recently-excavated sites in southern Siberia, such as the large cemetery at Aymyrlyg in Tuva containing more than 1,000 burials of the Scythian period, have revealed accumulations of bones often arranged in anatomical order. This indicates burials of semi-decomposed corpses or defleshed skeletons, sometimes associated with leather bags or cloth sacks. Marks on some bones show cut-marks of a nature indicative of defleshing, but most appear to suggest disarticulation of adult skeletons. Murphy and Mallory suggest that, since the Issedones were nomads living with cattle herds, they moved up the mountains in summer, but they wanted their dead to be buried at their winter camp; defleshing and dismemberment of the people who died in summer would have been more hygienic than allowing the corpses to decompose naturally in the summer heat. Burial of the dismembered remains would have taken place in fall after returning to winter camp, but before the ground was frozen completely. Such procedures of defleshing and dismemberment may have been mistaken for evidence of cannibalism by foreign onlookers.
Murphy and Mallory do not exclude the possibility that the flesh removed from the bodies was consumed. Archeologically these activities remain invisible. But they point out that elsewhere, Herodotus names another tribe (Androphagi) as the only group to eat human flesh.
On the other hand, Dr. Timothy Taylor points out:
- 1. Herodotus reports that the so-called “Androphagoi” are the “only” people in the region to practice cannibalism. However, a distinction should be drawn between “aggressive gustatory cannibalism” (i.e., hunting humans for food) and the ritualized, reverential practices reported among the Issedones and Massagetae.
- 2. Scythian-type peoples were renowned embalmers and presumably would have no need for funerary defleshing to delay decomposition of the corpse.
- 3. Herodotus specifically describes the removal of the meat and mixing it with other foodstuffs to make a funerary stew.
Dr. Taylor concludes: “Inferring reverential funerary cannibalism in this case is thus the most academically cautious approach”.
The Kombai are known to have practiced cannibalism in the past, as part of their culture. The Kombai also believe in evil spirits called Suangi. Suangis are said to eat the blood and/or internal organs of their victims and then stuff the bodies with leaves and grass. They are also believed to devour the person’s soul. After being attacked, the victim is then said to return home where they seem to have fallen mysteriously ill. If a victim is able to name the Suangi that has attacked him, they are often killed and eaten by the victim’s family in the belief that it will free the person’s spirit. The Kombai also believe in Khakhua-Kumu, evil men who consume the souls of their victims, and must be killed or eaten in return.
Korowai tribe in Papua, Indonesia is known as the tribes that still remaining in the world and performs cannibalism until now. They usually eat his tribe member suspected of being witches. Usually they eat while still in a state of his brain warm. Their residence, usually located above the tall tree is useful to protect from their enemies.
Marind-anim are people living in South New Guinea, in the past, they were famed because of headhunting. This was rooted in their belief system and linked to the name-giving of the newborn. The skull was believed to contain a mana-like force. Headhunting was not motivated primarily by cannibalism, but the already killed person’s flesh was consumed.
Massagetae – Uzbekistan
According to Herodotus: Each man has but one wife, yet all the wives are held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae and not of the Scythians, as the Greeks wrongly say. Human life does not come to its natural close with this people; but when a man grows very old, all his kinsfolk collect together and offer him up in sacrifice; offering at the same time some cattle also. After the sacrifice they boil the flesh and feast on it; and those who thus end their days are reckoned the happiest. If a man dies of disease they do not eat him, but bury him in the ground, bewailing his ill-fortune that he did not come to be sacrificed.
The Sawi are a tribal people of Western New Guinea, Indonesia. They were known to be cannibalistic headhunters as recently as the 1950s.
Tribes in Africa practiced cannibalism
Beti-Pahuin – Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe
The Beti-Pahuin’s exact origins are unclear. At one point, they were thought to have migrated into the territory of present-day Cameroon from the Azande area of Sudan, but the current belief is that they originated in the forests south of the Sanaga River, not far from their current territory. During this process, the migrants encountered other ethnic groups. The invaders were militarily superior, however, and (possibly aided by a reputation for cannibalism), they were able to absorb and “Pahuinise” most of the indigenous groups they encountered. Those peoples who refused or resisted assimilation had no choice but to flee.
Tribes in Oceania practiced cannibalism
Māori – New Zealand
Maori in New Zealand is a tribe of cannibals who have documented very well. Cannibalism had been a part of Maori culture, and they never stop to eat their enemies. When the British ship, the Boyd, anchored and the crew killed the son of the head of the Maori, the Maori warrior take revenge by killing and eating 66 crew of the ship. This event is finally known as the “body massacre.”
Countries where cannibalism is being followed and is practiced in this 21st century:
Most of the countries to this exclusive and distinct club include some of the most prospering and largely underdeveloped ones where even today as well this heinous and inhuman practice is contributing to their platter. These countries are mostly in continents of Africa and Asia with have two exceptions of two from Europeans: they are: India, China, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Guinea, Liberia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Nigeria, Rwanda, Ukraine, Germany, Polynesia, Melanesia, Australia. In these countries there are lots of similarities as well as dissimilarities. One can get a complete detail content of the reasons why in these countries it is still practiced and people still love to live their cannibal values.
Cannibalism in India has existed from thousands of centuries or one can say since times unknown. Here in India there are three groups which practice this act.
Aghoris – This is sect of religious Hindu splinter holy men who believe that if they eat human meat they will get immortality. They also believe that eating human flesh prevents ageing. One can find them near cremation grounds or near banks of river Ganges where they grab the floating dead bodies and enjoy their feast. They drink from human skulls and always carry bones and skulls with them.
Naga – This is a warrior tribe found in the North Eastern state of India – Nagaland. They still practice necro-cannibalism where the dead members are eaten by his relatives or family within the close quarters of their four walls. Earlier this tribe has also practiced homicide cannibalism but due to the abolition of tribal laws and advanced transformation of their life styles in the modern India they have discontinued this practice as now their no tribal wars or any intrusions made by other communities to grab their ancestral lands which used to the norm before independence.
Hopi, Zuni and Peublo communities also practice some part of cannibalism while performing cremation rituals.
There are other tribal communities like Andaman’s, Manipuri, Mizo, Jaintya, Bodo, Garo, Khasi, Tripuri who on some or the other occasion sometimes practice this un-natural behavior of cannibalism. All these tribes are found in the Indian states of North East and Andaman – Nicobar Island Group.
This is the most bizarre and has most weird eating habits in the world. Here cannibalism is not an act but a platter or is a scientific form of an exclusive range of human cuisines. In some parts of China girls are sacrificed and eaten to please God and their ancestral spirits. These girls are mostly of early teenage and before they are slaughtered their hands and legs are tied first and their mouth sealed by the plastic tape. Being helpless in front of those werewolves’ they witness their own homicide. After slitting their throats their bodies are left in the open so that the remaining blood flows out of the body naturally. The blood during the slitting of the throat is collected in the deep vessel which will be later use for performing rituals. Their bodies hare hanged upside down and then the cannibals begin the process of skinning and cleaning of the internal organs.
Fetus soup is delicacy in China and it is liked by many people over there from decades. Many says that this new kind of cannibalistic culture of eating fetus or aborted babies was started due to the rigid and harsh one child policy which force couples to abort their babies or even abandon them premature sometimes. These babies are then become the main ingredient for soup which is liked by millions of Chinese.
Here are some relevant reports and stories about this bizarre world – We posted once an article about how the Japanese simulated eating a human body as a form of edgy entertainment. Well now there are reports that the Chinese have been eating infant babies in an attempt to improve their health and beauty.
The Next Magazine, a weekly publication from Hong Kong, is reporting that infant fetuses have become a popular health and beauty supplement in China. It is further reported that in Guangdong, the demand for gourmet body parts is so high, that they can even be purchased directly from the hospitals.
It is reported that during a banquet hosted by a Taiwanese businessman, a servant Ms Liu from Liaoning province on the mainland inadvertently revealed the habit of eating infants/fetuses in Liaoning province and her intention to return for the supplement due to health concerns. The Taiwanese women present were horrified.
Ms Liu also disclosed that even though people can afford the human parts there are still waiting lists and those with the right connections get the “highest quality” human parts, which translates to the more mature fetuses. A male fetus is considered the “prime” human part.
Ms Liu then escorted the reporter to a location where a fetus was being prepared. A woman was chopping up a male fetus and making soup from the placenta. During the process, the woman even tried to comfort everyone by saying, “Don’t be afraid, this is just the flesh of a higher animal.”
In fact, in China, reports about meals made from infant flesh have surfaced from time to time. A video is on the Internet for people to view. In the introduction, the Chinese claim that eating a human fetus is an art form.
On March 22, 2003, police in Bingyan, Guangxi Province seized 28 female babies smuggled in a truck from Yulin, Guangxi Province going to Houzhou in Anhui Province. The oldest baby was only three months old. The babies were packed three or four to a bag and many of them were near death.
On the morning of October 9, 2004, a person rifling through the garbage on the outskirts of Jiuquan city in the Suzhou region, found dismembered babies in a dumpster. There were two heads, two torsos, four arms, and six legs. According to the investigation, these corpses were no more than a week old and they had been dismembered after cooking.
Although China has laws that prohibit the eating of human fetus, the regime’s forced abortions to ensure the one child policy is strictly adhered to thereby creating many opportunities for these sorts of atrocities to occur.
A favorite tourist destination and a glittering hub of sex trade have seen its people being cannibal sometime to satisfy their bizarre of this taboo. In 2009 there was a case when Thai people of Sawang Pae Paisarn Foundation in the distant corner of this country killed a Nigerian and was eaten by them after cooking all his dissected body parts and was distributed among all those who have participated in this act of insane anthropophagi. However the truth is something else their pictures of removing flesh from body were a religious act which was performed by the members of this foundation and with the help of volunteers were intercepted with pictures of cooking lunch by some members at the same location. This ceremony in Thailand is called Lang Pa Cha which is performed when the cemetery gets filled up having no more space to accommodate dead bodies further. This ceremony is mostly held during the summer season from March – May. So, in order to ease out the cremation process in the already squeezed and of small sized cremation chamber they clear the entire flesh from the skeleton and dissect it followed by rituals. The remaining flesh also goes into cremation chamber but after cremating the cleaned skeletal. This is a Buddhist practice and is carried in almost all the Buddhist faith countries like China and other South Pacific countries and even Sri-Lanka.
This controversy was so heightened that letters were sent to the Thai Ambassador to Nigeria in Abuja and even to Barack Obama. Many protests were carried out by the furious African community and even African Union too protested. One can find read out the entire comments and conversation carried published in http://www.southernspeakers.net/2009/09/cannibalism-in-thailand.html in a statement and answer to this circulating controversy which had almost destroyed the diplomatic relations between the two nations was cleared by the Thai Embassy The Royal Thai Embassy in Abuja yesterday said the compact discs, magazines and other materials in circulation, alleging that some Thai nationals were eating human parts were false and should be discountenanced.
The embassy said in a statement that the images being circulated were taken at a ritual called, “Lang Pa Cha” or cleaning of the cemetery in Prachuab Khiri Khan Province between March and May.
The circulation of the materials, including calendars, CDs and magazines on the streets of Lagos and other cities, has unsettled many Nigerians who have relations in Thailand. This followed the impression that the blacks in the country were the targets of the cannibals.
But the Thai Embassy said the images were only manipulated to generate ill-feelings.
According to the statement, the ritual was usually carried out on dead bodies which were dug up to create more space for new deaths.
The statement reads in part: “When dug up, the bodies, which have not been claimed by any relatives will be cremated according to Buddhist rites. As their bones are cremated, their flesh has to be dissected before the cremation.”
“The embassy said the images circulated were that of volunteers assisting in the cremation.”
A Tribe called Yoruba is indulge in the human flesh trade and even there are reports of cannibalism in the Eastern Nigeria where enjoy having human meat. Body parts and its trade are booming in Nigeria because of high rate of superstition and demand by witch doctors. Bodies which are unclaimed or did not found any place in cemetery or left partly cremated contribute majority of the volume of this flourishing business. There are open markets where one can buy fresh or stored human meat and its body parts. Here are the details from which one could have an idea about its norms and existence Lagos – A Nigerian man has been arrested after he killed a woman and ate her stewed intestines in a bid to cure an abnormally persistent Attention, police said on Wednesday.
A spokesperson for Osun state police said 50-year-old Folorunso Olukotun had led officers to his victim’s disemboweled body in the bush near his home village in south-west Nigeria.
“According to the man’s story, his private organ always has an Attention and it doesn’t go down,” Oluwole Ayodeji said. “Someone advised him to kill a woman and eat her intestines.”
Olukotun ambushed his victim, a woman in her forties unknown to her attacker, on a path near her village. He attacked her with a machete, killed her, and took her intestines home, Ayodeji said.
‘He seems to have believed them’
“He cooked them like a sort of stew and ate them with pounded yam,” he said. “When the police arrived he was very open, we have his whole confession on tape and he has been remanded in custody.”
The spokesperson said that police believe that someone had jokingly suggested cannibalism as a cure for Olukotun’s problem, in the belief that he would never carry out such a killing.
“He seems to have believed them,” he said. Police could not say whether the Attention has now subsided. – Sapa-AFP
Directly an enemy was slain, his head – and sometimes his body, if the people were strongly cannibalistic – was taken to the village and a great dance given, either at once or after the skull has been cleaned of its flesh by boiling, or by being buried for a time in the ground. At the feast, every man-slayer of the village danced round, generally with a skull in one hand and his machete in the other. Sometimes the body of the enemy was brought in whole; sometimes it was cut in pieces in advance to facilitate transport. It was then boiled in native pots and shared out, occasionally among the man-slayer’s family and friends, but sometimes among all the people of the village, until it was wholly consumed. In some tribes it was forbidden for women and children to partake of human flesh; in others, for example among the Kalabari, the eldest sister of the hut was forced to taste it, however strongly she might protest.
Among the Abadja, the whole body of anyone slain was ordinarily taken back to the village and there consumed, though it was tabu to eat women or children. A man only divided his ‘kill’ among his own family. The body was cut up and cooked in pots; the fingers, palms of the hands, and toes were considered the best eating. Sometimes, if a family had been satisfied, part of the body would be dried and put away for later.
When an Nkanu warrior brought a head back, everyone who heard of the deed gave him a present, and much palm-wine was drunk. The trophy was boiled, and the flesh cut away. The skull was then taken out, accompanied with all the others in the village, and the flesh was then boiled and eaten.
Much cruelty was practiced among certain of these tribes. For example, the Bafum-Bansaw, who frequently tortured their prisoners before putting them to death? Palm-oil was boiled in a big pot, and then by means of a gourd enema it was pumped into the bowels and stomachs of the prisoners. This practice was said to make the bodies much more succulent than they would otherwise have been. The bodies were left until the palm-oil had permeated them, and then cut up and devoured.
P. A. Talbot, Southern Nigeria, Clarendon Press, 1926 (3 vols.)
Every moment, men, women and even children passed me. One would be carrying a human leg on his shoulder; another would be carrying the lungs or the heart of some unfortunate Kroo-boy in his or her hands. Several times I myself was offered my choice of one of these morsels, dripping with gore.
Father Bubendorf of Freiburg, an eye-witness to the slaughter of a group of captives outside the hut of a tribal chief, Onitsha, Nigeria, c. 1921
The Two Congo’s (DRC and ROC)
Marauding rebels were massacring and eating pygmies in the dense forests of north-east Congo, according to UN officials who are investigating allegations of cannibalism in Ituri province, where fighting between several rebel groups has displaced about 150,000 people in the past month.
Many of the displaced tell of rebel fighters capturing and butchering pygmies, Manoddje Mounoubai, spokesman for the UN ceasefire monitoring mission in Congo, said.
The UN had sent six officials to investigate the accusation as well as other human rights abuses, he said.
Other UN officials in the capital, Kinshasa, and the eastern city of Goma said that widespread cannibalism had already been established.
‘Ituri is completely out of control and cannibalism is just the latest atrocity taking place,’ said one, who asked not to be named until the investigators deliver their report. ‘Perhaps this will finally alert the world to what’s going on.’
Ituri’s forest-dwelling pygmy tribes have been caught between opposing groups supporting the government and Ugandan-backed rebel groups in the last battles of Congo’s four-year civil war.
The two Ugandan-backed movements routinely enslave pygmies to forage for forest food and prospect for minerals, a UN official said.
Hunters returning empty-handed were killed and eaten.
Sudi Alimasi, an official of the pro-government group Rally for Congolese Democracy-ML, said it had begun receiving reports of cannibalism from people displaced by fighting more than a week ago.
‘We hear reports of [enemy] commanders feeding on sexual organs of pygmies, apparently believing this would give them strength,’ he said.
‘We also have reports of pygmies being forced to feed on the cooked remains of their colleagues.’
Cannibalism has re-emerged throughout eastern Congo as the last vestiges of colonial influence have been eroded during the war. Much of the vast forested area is controlled by the Mayi-Mayi, a loose grouping of tribal militias united by their magical beliefs and taste for human flesh.
On a recent assignment in eastern Congo the Guardian correspondent saw many Mayi-Mayi fighters wearing parts of the bodies of their Rwandan enemies, in the belief that this would make them invincible.
‘We are hearing reports of untold horrors in Ituri,’ said Wyger Wentholt, of Médecins sans Frontières.
Report by James Astill in Nairobi, The Guardian, 9 January 2003
In Democratic Republic of Congo rebel fighters of Hema and Lendu tribes are known to practice the homicidal cannibalism to weaken and frighten the enemy. No-one was spared in the Congo civil war and even now as well the bitter truth continue to exist and being practiced.
Examples and evidences of cannibalism in other African countries:
Liberia – Today’s practice of ritual killings in Liberia – because it still exists! – Mainly is a combination of traditional beliefs which inspire men-eating and modern-day criminal behavior of unscrupulous politicians who consider their ambitions worth more than the life of their victims. During the 14-year civil war (1989-2003) there were so many cases of gunmen – some of them child soldiers – eating their victim’s hearts and other body parts that the Catholic Church issued a formal denunciation of these practices (Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy, 1999: dust-jacket?)
“Nor was it just teenage fighters who held the idea that they could have access to spiritual power through the consumption of human flesh, or at least by a ritual use of human body parts. Most interesting is the allegation concerning (President) Charles Taylor himself made by his former defense minister, Tom Woewiyu. “We saw a lot”, said Woewiyu, describing his time as Taylor’s right-hand man, “including the formation of a group of cannibals called Top 20. Taylor is a member of this group. Human sacrifices, under the direction of his uncle Jensen Taylor, take place in Taylor’s house.” A group of sixteen NPFL (Taylor’s army) generals and fourteen Special Force commandos made similar allegations concerning Taylor. They issued a formal statement affirming that “we …. stand in readiness to testify Taylor’s ritualistic killings of our peers.” Ellis concludes: ‘True or not, such claims are widely believed’ (Ellis, 1999: p. 264).
These accusations caused Charles Taylor to legally pursue Stephen Ellis. After the British Times newspaper repeated the allegations in its review of Ellis’ book (‘The Mask of Anarchy’ – see Sources) President Charles Taylor started a libel case against Ellis but he withdrew it, early 2001, allegedly because of the high cost of pursuing the case in London. Given his immense wealth, it is more likely that Taylor was afraid of being requested to come to London and testify before court, an action which would have made him vulnerable and susceptible of arrest which human rights groups were asking for because of his crimes against humanity. (The Guardian: 2 February, 2001).
Many more cases could be cited that sadly confirm Liberia’s reputation in the area of ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present. Ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present.
Sierra Leone – During civil war majority of the lives were lost not because of the fighting but by cannibalism. It was practiced to spread terror and to keep the captive rebels or prisoners away from the severe interrogations done by mercenaries or British Army or SAS. Here is the account of it which explores the rampant cannibalism in Sierra Leone the mercenaries encountered while waging war there and the international efforts to shape the nation and its neighbors…
CAPE TOWN, South Africa –”There is a lot of cannibalism in Sierra Leone,” said Bert Sachse, a 34-year veteran of the South African Special Forces and commander of the mercenary war during the mid-1990s in the troubled West African nation.
“If you capture the enemy, you want to interrogate them. For the Sierra Leone army, they wanted to eat the heart and or other vital organs of their enemies. We would have to fly out the prisoners we wanted to interrogate on the helicopters back to Freetown so they wouldn’t be eaten. The MI-17 would fly over and the Sierra Leone soldiers would look up and say, ‘There goes dinner.’ They would look upset. In certain parts of Sierra Leone cannibalism is rife.” Sandline and Executive Outcomes were the mercenary organizations, located in South Africa and London, for whom Sachse and his men worked.
Another Sandline soldier interviewed by WorldNetDaily commented, “One can only image the Sierra Leone soldiers eating the heart and other organs of an RUF prisoner. I have a mental picture of a soldier holding a heart in his mouth, and another eating a hand and Bert Sachse asking them, ‘How many times do we have to tell you not to eat the prisoners before we interrogate them? Didn’t you get the memo?'”
Continued Sachse: “When Kabbah came back, he had about 20 of the Sierra Leone army staff executed right in front of us. He said there was some kind of conspiracy. One of those executed was a military commander with whom Sandline/Executive Outcomes had worked quite closely. What could you do? The Nigerian peacekeepers executed them.”
It was not Breaker Morant with a cigarette and one round.
“They tied them up to trees and mowed them down. Guys got chopped. They were dead or dying and the Nigerians would call for more magazines of ammo,” explained Sachse while waving his arms to show how the Nigerians called for more ammo during the executions.
Sachse lamented the chaos so prevalent in African armed forces, saying, “Some soldiers in Africa were paid with bags of rice. A sergeant major might get five bags of rice, but another soldier with more children might get only one bag of rice and that would lead to bad morale. The Sierra Leone army was a bloody rabble. The SADF was efficient. It all started with the Rhodesian army. Minimum casualties and maximum effect.”
Uganda – Few people outside Uganda know that in the north the government is fighting a fanatical and murderous cult – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) – whose fighting force is made up in large part of abducted children. Up to 95 per cent of the population in these areas has been forced from their homes by the war. Nearly two million Ugandans, out of a population of 24.7 million, now live in refugee camps for fear of being attacked and killed in their villages.
Children have told how they had been forced by the rebels at gunpoint to abduct and murder other children and to drink their blood. A former commander of the rebel group explained that he had forced villagers to chop up, cook and eat their neighbours before he killed them, too.
On 20th September 2008 a 33 year old Sowedi Kimera has been arrested in Uganda on suspicion of cannibalism. Police raided Kimera’s Kireka home on Thursday after being alerted to a corpse on the premises.
Mr Kimera was arrested in the early hours of Thursday morning after residents and Local Council officials tipped the Police of an unidentified body in his house. Police say they searched the house on Wednesday evening and discovered the body of a woman in Kimera’s living room, they traced Kimera to a local bar and arrested him on suspicion of cannibalism. Local residents attempted to lynch Kimera as he was taken into custody.
The dead woman found in Kimera’s home is believed to be Annet Mbabazi, a resident of Kireka. Mr Kimera reportedly checked her body out of the town morgue on Wednesday night, but he gave no explanation as to how or why he took the body.
Fiji – Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes was quite rampant and very much part of everyday life. During the 19th century, Ratu Udre Udre is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement. According to Deryck Scarr (“A Short History of Fiji”, 1984, page 3), “Ceremonial occasions saw freshly killed corpses piled up for eating.’Eat me!’ was a proper ritual greeting from a commoner to a chief.” Scarr also reported that the posts that supported the chief’s house or the priest’s temple would have sacrificed bodies buried underneath them, with the rationale that the spirit of the ritually sacrificed person would invoke the gods to help support the structure, and “men were sacrificed whenever posts had to be renewed” (Scarr, page 3). Also, when a new boat, or drua, was launched, if it was not hauled over men as rollers, crushing them to death, “it would not be expected to float long” (Scarr, page 19″). Fijians today regard those times as “na gauna ni tevoro” (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles, in turn Fiji was unknown to the rest of the outside world. “Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals”.
Germany – Armin Meiwes is a German man who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary victim whom he had found via the Internet. After Meiwes and the victim jointly attempted to eat the victim’s severed penis, Meiwes killed his victim and proceeded to eat a large amount of his flesh. Because of his acts, Meiwes is also known as the Rotenberg Cannibal or Der Metzgermeister (The Master Butcher). Though he was arrested in 2002 but he committed this act in 2001 when he got his reply to his advertisement posted on some internet site now defunct. An Italian Bernd Jürgen Brandes then answered the advertisement. As is known from a videotape the two made when they met on 9 March 2001 in Meiwes’s home in the small village of Rotenburg, Meiwes amputated Brandes’ penis and the two men attempted to eat the penis together before Brandes was killed. Brandes had insisted that Meiwes attempt to bite his penis off. This did not work and ultimately, Meiwes used a knife to remove Brandes’ penis. Brandes apparently tried to eat some of his own penis raw, but could not because it was too tough and, as he put it, “chewy”. Meiwes then fried the penis in a pan with salt, pepper, wine and garlic; he then fried it with some of Brandes’ fat but by then it was too burned to be consumed. He then chopped it up into chunks and fed it to his dog. According to journalists who saw the video (which has not been made public), Brandes may already have been too weakened from blood loss to actually eat any of his penis. Meiwes read a book for three hours, while Brandes lay bleeding in the bath. Meiwes apparently gave him large quantities of alcohol and pain killers, twenty sleeping pills and a bottle of schnapps, kissed him and finally killed him in a room that he had built in his house for this purpose, the Slaughter Room. After stabbing Brandes to death in the throat, he hung the body on a meat hook and tore chunks of flesh from it; he even tried to grind the bones to use as flour. The whole scene was recorded on the two-hour video tape. Meiwes enjoyed eating the body over the next 10 months, storing body parts in his freezer under pizza boxes and consuming up to 20 kilograms (44 lb) of the flesh. According to prosecutors, Meiwes committed the act for sexual enjoyment. Meiwes has admitted what he did, and expressed regret for his actions. He added he wanted to write a book of his life story with the aim of deterring anyone who wants to follow his steps. Websites dedicated to Meiwes have appeared, with people advertising for willing victims. “They should go for treatment, so it doesn’t escalate like it did with me”, said Meiwes. He believes there are over 100 cannibals in Germany. What was shocking was that cannibalism in not a sin as per Germany code of law.
Ukraine, Russia and CIS
Ukraine – On July 15, 2002, police in the central Ukranian town of Zhytomyr said they have arrested three men and a woman on suspicion of murdering and cannibalizing up to six people, including an 18-year-old girl. “They killed a young woman in a forest and then cut out fleshy parts of the body and ate them. This is horrible,” a police spokeswoman told the Reuters news agency. In what is believed to have been a satanic ritual, the suspects killed the 18-year-old with two knife thrusts to the heart, local interior ministry representative Viktor Kurbatov told the press. She was also scalped and decapitated. Then the suspects boiled her head in water and ate pieces from it. The cannibal crew was arrested several days after the murder when they went to meet the girl’s parents to collect a $3,000 ransom.
Crimea – In March, 1996, police in the Crimean city of Sebastopol were called to investigate a murder. Nothing had prepared them for the carnage they discovered when they entered the home of a former convict and found the mutilated remains of human bodies being prepared for eating. The flat’s owner, her mother and her boyfriend, had been stabbed to death by the 33-year-old suspect and their bodies neatly butchered. In the kitchen investigators found the internal organs of two victims in saucepans, and nearby on a plate a freshly roasted piece of human flesh.
Finnish soldiers displaying Soviet soldiers’ skins near Maaselkä, on the strand of lake Seesjärvi during Continuation War on the 15th of December in 1942. Original caption: “An enemy recon patrol that was cut out of food supplies had butchered a few members of their own patrol group, and had eaten most of them.”
Perestroika– Alarmingly, cannibalism is becoming way of life in the former Soviet Union. In the 1996 ten people were charged with killing and eating other people. Police estimate that at least 30 people were eaten that year.
Newspaper reports across the former Soviet Union Republics speak of cases of vagrants being eaten, or their bodies being cut up and sold to unsuspecting passers-by. “We have information about cases where human flesh is sold in street markets; also when homeless people kill each other and sell the flesh. Every month we find corpses with missing body parts.”
An apocryphal story — which may or may not be true — relates how two winos fed a buddy human flesh. The man ate with great appetite, but when he learned the true source of the meal, he hanged himself.
Siberia – In 1996 a man in the Siberian coal mining town of Kemerovo was arrested after he admitted killing and cutting up a friend, and using his flesh as the filling for pelmeni, a Russian version of ravioli which, coincidentally, is the favorite dish of the Yeltsin family. The scam was uncovered when rag-pickers scavenging through a garbage dump discovered a severed human head. Soon they discovered that the rest of the body had been minced, put into pelmeny, and sold at cut-price prices in the local market.
Kirgizstan – Russia’s most industrious cannibal, Nikolai Dzhurmongaliev is believed to have killed up to 100 women, and served many of them to his dinner guests. Nikolai used at least 47 of his victims to make ethnic dishes for his neighbors in the Kyrgyzstan. When arrested Nikolai pointed out that two women could provide enough delicate meat to keep him going for a week.
Prison – Twice last year convicts in overcrowded prisons killed and ate their cellmates because they claimed they were hungry and wanted to relieve overcrowding. Criminal experts said that most cases of cannibalism in Russia were part of the general rise of serial killings, and because of Russia’s mounting economic and social problems.
Barnaul – Offering no other explanation than not wanting to share his cell, Andrei Maslich, 24, strangled his fellow prisoner and then cut out his liver with a shard of broken glass. He put the organ in a mug with water and boiled it up on a makeshift fire made from his bedding. Standing in the defendant’s cage in the court room, Maslich admitted to drinking up his homemade stew. The next morning, part of the shrunken organ was found in the mug.
Maslich, a four-time convicted murderer, was initially given his first death penalty last year after he and another inmate strangled, cooked and ate another prisoner. Then they told authorities they were bored and wanted to visit Moscow, where they thought they would be sent for psychiatric examinations.
Kazakhstan – In the Semipalatinsk prison in Kazakhstan, four convicts — who blamed their actions on newspaper articles about instances of cannibalism in prison — decided to eat the very first “new guy” placed in their cell. So when a convict named Volchenkov showed up, they killed him, cut meat from his arms and back, cooked it up, and ate it. Some pieces were fried on a hot plate and some of were boiled in an electric kettle.
Kzyl Orda – A man guarding a pot field in Kzyl Orda region of Kazakstan confessed to shooting and cannibalizing his comrade. The suspect, identified only by the single name Zhusaly, salted the flesh of his buddy and ate it for 10 days. The man — along with three farmers charged with growing the pot — was arrested in a drug raid. The three also have been charged with concealing murder.
Berezniki – The grim discovery of cannibalism in Perm Oblast unfolded when Citizen K. brought to the police station a package of human flesh. He had bought it on the street. His wife, having studied the piece, discovered skin on it. Specialists say that the taste of “people meat” is a specific one, and has a distinctive smell when it’s cooked. “The taste of a victim,” it is asserted, in full seriousness, at the Main Criminal Investigations Administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, “depends on the victim himself: if he drank or smoked a lot, whether he liked sweets or salt…”
F.A. Boldyshev and his friend N.V. Ostanin, got drunk with a third man, A.P. Vavilin, and killed him. Then they dismembered his corpse and had one of their mother’s cook the choice cuts. After gladly gorging themselves, they packed up the remains and sold them in the street. Vavilin’s head, hands, and feet were thrown into the attic. In custody the lethal trio confessed they did it so to save money on the purchase of normal food.
The Urals – Anatoly Dolbyshev, a resident of Berezniki in the Urals region of Perm, was found guilty of stabbing to death a friend of his mother’s in a fight. He was also charged with “swindling and appropriation of property through deceit,” when he cut up his victim’s body and sold pieces of the human flesh to unsuspecting local townsfolk in exchange for vodka. Police arrested Anatoly when one buyer found a strip of human skin in the meat.
Moscow – Citizen Kolpakov from Nizhnyy Novgorod, a lodger of a rooming house, was killed by the son of the woman who owned the apartment. The killer cut a piece of soft tissue from the forearm, fried it in a frying pan, and ate it. A panel of experts found him to be of diminished responsibility.
Marshal Tukachevensky Street – Moskovsky Komsomolets, Moscow’s most popular daily, reported a grisly finding on Marshal Tukhachevksy Street. A beggar rummaging for food through the rubbish bins finds a human foot and several other body parts. Police called to the scene found more evidence of murder: four hands, four shoulders and three feet, all female. “It became clear to the detectives that they were dealing with not one, but two murders,” the newspaper reported.
Chuvash Autonomous Republic – On July 3, 1997, the supreme court of Russia’s Chuvash Autonomous Republic sentenced Vladimir Nikolayev, 38, to death for killing and cannibalizing two people in the town of Novocheboksary. Nikolayev, denounced as a particularly dangerous criminal ten years before, was being arrested in his apartment in the winter of 1996 when police found a pan of roasted human meat on the stove and another cannibal dish in the oven. In the snow on his balcony Nikolayev had more bodies’ part stored to eat later. Investigators who questioned Nikolayev said he had jokingly asked them to prepare him a dinner using his stock of human meat.
Novokuznetsk – In a one man crusade to cleanse modern Russia from the permissiveness of democracy, Sasha Spesivtsev, 27, killed at least 19 street children who he saw as the detritus of society. The unemployed black marketeer would lure his homeless victims from the streets and local train stations in the Siberian town of Novokuznetsk to his home where, with the help of his mother, he killed and ate them.
Udmurtian – In a settlement of Novyy, two men — Rasskazov and Bobylev — were charged with killing and eating their drinking partner Alekhin.
In a stream outside Novokuznetsk, 43 bone fragments were found of six bodies — four boys, one girl, and one man. The criminologists have a theory: A whole family was done away with. But in order to “establish genetic identity,” it was necessary to conduct a special analysis of the bones. And the Internal Affairs Ministry official in charge of the case says, “These preserved bones have lain in my refrigerator for a month already, waiting for the chemicals. Special preparations are very expensive…”
Mantorovo – Situated on a tributary of the Volga, Manturovo is a quiet town of 22,000, where two women — Valentina Dolbilina, a 36-year-old mother of a four-year-old boy, and Vitaly Bezrodnov, 28, a factory worker — were accused of killing their drinking partner and then cooking his flesh.
After a night of heavy drinking, Bezrodnov announced he was hungry and “would like some meat”. After checking out one of their drinking buddies who was dead drunk in the corridor, they decided he was too skinny and packed him off home. Their gluttonous eyes then fell on a fourth member of the party, who was a bit fatter. Propelling him into the tiny kitchen, Bezrodnov asked Dolbilina for something heavy. With Dostoevskian inspiration she fetched an axe, and the victim was hit on the head, beheaded, undressed and then cut up into pieces. As Dolbilina held a tray, some 15 pounds of meat was cut from the thigh and rump, and put in the frying pan.
Awakened by the unusual smell of cooking meat, her flatmate, Boris Komarov, came into her room and asked to join the feast. Despite the haze of drink, even he noticed something strange. “It was a bit tough,” he said. He was reassured by Bezrodnov, who said they had killed a stray dog for the pot.
Satisfied by this explanation, Komarov skept eating the leg of man straight from the pan. Little did he realise the full ghastliness of the situation: the dead man was his own brother, Leonid. Even the little boy, Roma, was served a slice of Leonid. The kid later blurted out: “Mummy killed a man and served him up to her friends.”
St. Petersburg – Local cannibal Ilshat Kuzikov liked to marinate choice cuts with onions in a plastic bag hung outside his window. When the police forced their way into his home, they found Pepsi bottles full of blood and dried ears hanging on the wall – his winter supplies. He offered the officers some meat and vodka if they would let him go.
On March 19, 1997, Kuzikov was found guilty of killing three of his vodka drinking buddies and eating their internal organs, and was sent to a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. The confessed cannibal said he killed his first victim in 1992 after inviting him to his flat for a nightcap. Ilshat, 37, said he became a cannibal because he couldn’t buy enough to eat on his $20 monthly pension. After sating his appetite Kuzikov dismembered his friends and put them in a garbage dump.
During Stalin Rule – Russians have known cannibalism caused by genuine hunger. Due to the brutality of the Soviet Government there have been famines the like of which has not been seen in the West since the 19th century. In 1921 about five million people died in the Volga and Urals region, while the Ukraine was devastated in 1931 during Stalin’s collectivization of the farms. To survive the 444-day siege of Leningrad by the Germans, the defenders ate corpses.
Rostov – The grandfather of Russian-style cannibalism Andrei Chikatilo, believed that his brother had been murdered and his body parts sold during the Ukrainian famine of 1931. In a grim reminder of Andrei’s rampage, in January, 1997, Vladimir Mukhankin, 36, pleaded guilty to murdering eight women in Rostov-a-Don.
There is an association in an isolated Columbian Island republic of Isla Provedencia. Where a person named Perro Loco a self styled prophet and religious leader of the holy church of Dolcett California runs an organization called C&MHFSA – California & Midwest Human Female
Stockman’s Association of whom he says is chairman. He claims to be a supplier of high quality human female meat to various clients in Britain and other European countries. As per his website details he claims that girls volunteer themselves for the snuff video training and they have the option of either to volunteer for butchering or being a breeding sex slave to their owners.
Here is the link to its website: http://web.archive.org/web/20021002102029/http://www.necrobabes.org/perroloco/Previews.html
this is the same website which was used by the German Armin Meiwes where he had posted his advertisement for cannibalistic desire. This association calls human female as their cows which are used who are trained and sent for slaughtering process and even for the porn activities before being slaughtered as show girls. This person has even accepted his daughter’s application for cattle training and slaughtering her.
Opinion: First of all the practice of this heinous act cannibalism whether being practice as ritual, for cremation, for homicide or for just taboo or even for just for sexual pleasure or salvation but it will always be treated as in human and brutal. Whether religion or habit must not be entertain or shouldn’t be encouraged by any. It not only shows the psychological disorders but can cause the spread of severe epidemic like Kuru or even Aids.
Cannibalism is the most dreaded act will always remain the so which can be said otherwise the height of one’s mental disorder or physic. Government should at all cost must ban and regulate the practice of this serious and heinous sin which being a world’s oldest taboo still haunting the people lives in this civilized world showing uncivilized cultural tastes of the cannabis. The countries like Germany and others whether growing or poor must forced their people to keep their selves away from this sort of witch craft practices and destructive self fish practiced pleasures. Buddhists should not only revive and improve their practice of flesh cleaning before cremation but also discourage others to practice this exorcist’s culture.
SHE suddenly looks out of the window.
“Did I ask you a difficult question?”
“No, no. But it’s a question that has many answers. Have you thought about the meaning of love?”
“Umm… yes… but then who hasn’t!”
“Okay. Why don’t you tell me the meaning of love and I’ll keep listening.”
“Ah and why is that?”
“I find it more interesting if a man talks about love.” She bursts out laughing. “Oh come on I am really curious. I really want to know what you think about love.”
“Okay, okay, Anna you win!” She’s once again turned the tables on me,
“I agree that the question does indeed have many answers. So where would you like me to start?”
“Don’t think too much, Hatef, just say whatever comes to your mind.”
“I am actually thinking what others have already said about love,” I say rubbing my chin. “I can start with Shakespeare’s eternal words: ‘Love does not reason because it has no reasons’. Or perhaps, Aristotle’s: ‘Love is composed of a single soul living in two bodies’ or ‘What is life without love? Love is like the sun; without the light of the sun, there’s no life’. There are others whose names I don’t remember: ‘Love is the most noble weakness of the soul’. Or ‘Whatever your question, Love is the answer’. Or ‘Love is to admire with your heart, admiration is to love with your soul’. Or ‘Love is a disease that makes us unwell when we don’t have it’.
“Hatef,” her interruption has a hint of annoyance, “that’s very impressive, but I’d like to know what you think.”
I’ve got the message, and so I continue: “Well, in my mind love is a lot of things. It’s a powerful feeling… very hard to resist. It’s almost like a chemical reaction. A human being has many layers. And then there are different kinds of love. You can love a car or a house or a certain food.
You can love poetry or football or surfing. You can love your brother or mother or your child, your wife. You can love nature or you can love God. There are many different kinds of love. But I think love is also selfish. It’s both natural and spiritual. Love gives meaning to your life. It
is what makes life worth living when you’re despairing.”
“Hmm… that’s interesting,” she says looking at me with shining eyes,
“love is natural…”
“Yes, the love a mother has for her child is natural. She just gives and gives… to her child unconditionally. She carries the child for nine months, makes him piece by piece from her own tissue and body. She suffers enormous pain giving birth to the child. And she continues giving him her time and energy raising him, trying to make him happy and content.
And if she has to she will happily die for her child. Among animals there are many who mate for life. If one partner dies the other one will not take another. How does a mother learn to love like that? Where does an animal learn to love like that? It is natural. It’s in the blood so to speak… in a mother’s blood, the blood of the animals that mate for life.”
“Do you think that it is the highest kind of love: the love a mother has for her child?”
“Among humans, yes I believe that… the love a mother has for her child is the highest kind of love. And we cannot compare it to any other kind.
This doesn’t mean any other kind of love is less meaningful. I think every sort of love is meaningful and special in its own way. But yes a mother’s love is the purest… because it’s given without expecting anything in return, at least not immediately. It just wishes for the child to
be happy and healthy. And that is my main point. Can we really compare it with any kind of other love?”
“No, I don’t think we can. This love is a great and powerful feeling… I would think… even though I don’t have children…”
“You think right, Anna. The other kinds of love are conditional. They’re bound by expectations. To make them work there has to be a give and take. But these days we think more about taking than giving. Although, none of us would admit it.”
Anna gives me a smile that says ‘I agree’. “So you’re saying, we give to receive but when we don’t receive, we don’t love?”
“Yes, I am saying that. In fact it reminds me of something I once read. I can’t remember exactly who said it but it got me thinking with its simple contradiction. ‘Love is being selfish together’.”
“So if you are selfish alone then there’s no love?”
“Exactly! What I am saying is that both parties need to be selfish for each other. I think there’s no point in a love that is not returned. That kind of love can’t live for long. The other person will only end up getting hurt.”
“So people who say they love someone without being loved in return are actually not in love but in pain?” I like the sound of that question.
“Can it mean anything else?”
“But then, why do people choose to stay with someone who doesn’t love them back?”
“I think it depends upon the kind of person you are. Sometimes people may think what they have is as good as it’ll ever get. And that there’s nothing out there that can make it better for them. It’s a life of convenience and practicality they choose over the lack of love. Some people believe
being in pain is love.”
“Being in pain is love, how?”
“Because the pain makes them feel real… and alive. The more pain someone gives them the closer they feel to that person. I think sacrifice in a relationship is good, because sacrifice is a way of giving. But I think some people only want to sacrifice and expect nothing in return.”
“So you are saying… do whatever makes you happy?”
“Yes. But I’d like to make a differentiation here… whatever might make a person happy, in my opinion, isn’t always love.”
“It is getting a bit confusing, Hatef… if you’re saying a healthy and happy relationship comes from both people being selfish in receiving each other’s love…”
“Yes, because it would mean that giving and receiving will go hand in hand. That way I believe two people complete each other, filled as they are with love for each other. Values like sacrifice, trust, patience, honesty come into play here because these values stand for equality. They also
make a relationship strong.
“Okay and such a relationship is bound to be healthy and will moreover keep alive these wonderful values,” Anna sums it up.
”Yes. Especially because it’s not easy to keep these values alive. They are very precious values for our entire race and if people get attached to them all the more better. It means even if love fades over time people will continue being there for each other just because of these values… It
means you’ll always have someone there for you, in sickness and in health. And you’ll also be there for that person. And that person will be your lover, your best friend in this journey called life. It will also make you forget the less appealing parts of your lover.”
“Just to understand it better, can you elaborate what you call ‘being in love’,” Anna interrupts.
“Well ‘being in love’ is wanting to be with someone because you like being with her. You like the way she looks, you like her touch, the look in her eyes when she looks at you. We call it chemistry. The heat that we feel being around another person. It is exciting and we long to feel it,
keep feeling it. It’s wonderful when this chemistry is reciprocated. But time conquers all. Physical beauty fades as we get older. But still people continue to stay together, even after the reasons that made them fall in love aren’t there anymore. I think with time people go from ‘being in love’ to a love that completes them. A love that glues people together. The values we talked about earlier also help us to fall in love and they remain even when we’re out of love, technically speaking. And that’s why I think it is very important to keep these values alive. They are, I
believe, the ingredients of love.”
The train is now leaving Roedby station.
“Okay,” says Anna, “I understand… that you are trying to convert me…
to your way of thinking.”
“I am only stating my own humble view, Anna.”
“So how does sex fit into all this,” she asks a little hesitantly.
“Well, sex is a very important part of our lives but what is its relation to love? If there’s any! Plato for example believed love to be a deep, spiritual connection between two people. He, in fact, totally denied a sexual element in love. Plato was essentially separating sex from love. And I’d say I don’t disagree with him. I think sex is a human need but its quality and the satisfaction got from it is not the same with everyone you have sex with. Sex with the person you love is special. It has a special passion to it. Sex with someone you don’t love is like eating just to fill your stomach. So in that sense I find it difficult to completely separate sex from love, like Plato did. On the other hand I’d say the sex life of a couple deeply in love may become, how do I say… ‘normal’? Maybe less exciting. At such a point of great familiarity sex may become
predictable and then couples have sex to ‘fill their stomach’.
“I believe the sex life of a couple in love also needs constant work because our sexual limits are far greater than we think. We need to keep exploring them, pushing them in order to keep growing and enriching ourselves.
Tantra, which is an Eastern discipline, is devoted to this kind of constant exploration and enrichment.
“Coming back to the values we talked about earlier… I think people in relationships continue to love each other even if their sex life has becomes monotonous, which anyway is something that can be remedied. What I am essentially saying is that even if the spark isn’t there anymore in the
bedroom a couple can still love each other. From this point of view Plato is right. Love is indeed separate from sex.”
Anna seems quite satisfied with my explanation. “So are you saying that sex is a very important part of life and that we must keep working on it in a relationship… to show our respect for it?”
“You are a good listener, Anna.” I say. “Woman are generally much better listeners than men. You are at this moment a living proof of this for me.”
“Thank you, Hatef, I believe listening is really eighty percent of the process of understanding.”
“Yes this is true, that’s why women are better with feelings and emotions.
They see that much more.”
“Please don’t underestimate yourself, Hatef. From whatever I’ve heard so far I’d say you too see a lot.” I can feel the sides of my face blush.
“You’re very kind, Anna. But I’ve reached this place by a lot of reading, some experience and much thought. A woman, I think, reaches it instinctively.”
This makes Anna smile her angelic smile.
“Well, that may be true but putting effort and energy to understand all this should not go unrecognised. It is in fact even more commendable.
Also because I think it is not always easy for a woman to understand. Also not many men spend that kind of energy and effort trying to find answers to the riddles of love and sex.”
I am by now in a full-blown blush and she’s not helping. “You should feel good about yourself, Hatef, women like men like that.
”But I always thought everyone thought about these things,” I say.
”Believe me, Hatef, I am telling you as a woman… it is not so.”
”In that case I’ll accept your compliment,” I am now smiling despite myself. “I feel quite exceptional now.” We both laugh.
After a few silent moments Anna reaches for her handbag. She takes out some chewing gum, takes a piece and offers me one.
“No thank you, Anna.”
She reaches for her bag again and takes out a can of energy drink.
“Then please take this, I think you need it,” she says.
“No Anna, am all right,” I answer.
“No please. Take it, I am going to quiz you some more… so you need it
more than me,” she says smiling.
“More questions? You really are going to interrogate me some more?”
“Yes sir, I am. So you better take it,” she holds out the drink for me.
“In that case I’ll take it.” I take the drink, open it and I take a sip. I put the can on the table and allow my drink to start doing its job of energizing me.
“Hatef, from what you’ve said so far… I feel all love is spiritual… isn’t that so?”
“Yes I think that is true. Love in all its aspects is spiritual. I also believe love is God himself.”
“So the love we feel is actually the presence of God in us?” “Yes, Sufism teaches us exactly that… that every human being is seeking this God-feeling with his every thought and action. Sufism also teaches that every human being carries within him or her deep desire to return to the love that he or she has come from. Each one of us has been created by the Almighty from his infinite love and whatever we experience in this world is really a journey of trying to get back to where we came from. The love he has put within us is what drives us, pushes us towards
new experiences. We’re like bees drawn to this huge flower called love.”
“Hmm… that’s very interesting. But what do you mean when you say that we desire to reach God with every experience?”
“Well, do you agree that every human being wants happiness? We seek happiness from everything around us: our partner, our job, house, education but every time we think we’ve found it we realise that it is not what we thought it would be. We realise everything we’ve reached is
temporary. So we go on seeking things that make us happy. But every time we think we’ve reached the edge of eternal happiness we are disappointed. We don’t want to admit to our disappointments. Sometimes we measure our lives against people who we think are less fortunate and feel happy.”
“Those are deep words, Hatef, they really speak to both my head and my heart. But how can people less fortunate than us make us happy?”
“It works like this… when we surround ourselves with things and objects of value we become attached, become slaves to them. In a way we are possessed by them instead of us possessing them. And this deludes us into thinking we’re in a better position than others who don’t have what we have.”
“So we begin measuring happiness with what we have…”
“Exactly, and then we begin to worry about losing what we have. This worry makes us actually less happy than someone who hasn’t got as much to lose.”
“That’s so ironical, we actually victims of our desires.”
“A Sufi is a person who’s constantly struggling to free himself of these desires. He’s constantly struggling to reach a state of nothingness. The only desire he has is to reach God, who is everywhere and is undying.
But in order to reach him a human being needs to become nothing; freed from all his desires, all that is temporary and earthly.”
“Wow. That sounds heavy! Maybe, Hatef, you could tell me some more about Sufism.”
“Sufism is the mystical core of Islam. But I also believe every belief system has its own mystical core saying the same thing in a different way. The mystical, spiritual journey of every human being is reach beyond religion, beyond a religious belief.” I wait for her response.
“Please continue, this gets better and better.”
“I am not an expert, you know. Maybe you could do some of your own research…”
“I would definitely, but I really want to hear what you know about it, please carry on.”
I am really pleased by her insistence and her curiosity. I like the respect and admiration she has for different points of view. How nice it is to meet a girl, born and raised in Europe, to be so open about Eastern philosophy. As our world gets more and more steeped in materialism
these kinds of conversations happen less and less. Anna has been a great listener.
‘Nykoebing, Nykoebing!’ The voice of the conductor snaps me out of my thoughts. I sink in my seat further.
“Have you heard about Rumi?” I ask her.
“No, is he a Sufi too?”
“Yes, he’s one of the greatest Sufis ever born. A Sufi master, actually!
Mewlana Celaluddin Rumi has shown us how to become fully human.
To me personally, Rumi’s been the greatest ever professor of the human soul. Through his poetry and his life he taught us how to go beyond the physical, into the metaphysical.”
“Tell me how?”
“How can you, Anna? It is meant for humans not angels.” She starts laughing caught by surprise in the middle of our serious conversation.
“You silly man, stop it!”
“Jokes apart, you too, Anna, could get there with the right teacher and the right attitude. According to Rumi, human beings are the centre of all creation. Everything has been created around man, for him… to make him happy. And no one, regardless of colour, creed, religion or sex can be excluded from this infinite love and grace of the Almighty. The human being is regarded as the khalif, the light of the Creator. He is the only creature on earth with the ability of taking God’s love and spreading it around. But not everyone can use this ability because people are prisoners of their nefs. Nefs is explained as a tether of earthly desires and urges.
For example if hate is part of your nefs, then it will manifest itself as jealousy, pride, etc. This way all the pain and suffering on our planet can be related to the nefs of its human population. But on the other hand, God has also given us his divine characteristics. We have the ability to
love, to show grace and mercy, to be noble, to show patience and understanding, to choose between right and wrong. And so our life becomes a constant struggle, trying to make our divine characteristics prevail over our nefs.”
“This means we’ve not done a good job of our struggle, because there are so many things going wrong in the world. We have so many wars and so much poverty in the world today.”
“Yes, we’ve in fact done a very bad job of it.”
“But then why does God allow it to happen… for example children dying of hunger. Especially, when he has the power to prevent it.”
“Anna, God doesn’t put himself as a controller above us. Someone who constantly intervenes in our daily life. He says, ‘don’t murder’ but there isn’t a hand coming down from heaven every time someone’s going to commit murder. He says, ‘don’t steal’ but people still steal. He says,
‘don’t lie’ but people still lie. But then he has appointed a day when he’ll audit our accounts, so to speak,” I say smiling. “God has given us a map of both Heaven and Hell. But it is up to us to choose what we want. He has given us all the tools to do the right thing. Also given us a free will.
For example there’s enough wealth on this planet to feed and give shelter to each and every one of us, provided we’re willing to share this wealth.
Essentially, we have to overcome our desire to own more than we need.
We should be willing to give away what we don’t need.
“So what prevents us from doing this? Again we come back to our nefs.
It is what makes us selfish and indifferent. The more we overcome our nefs the closer we get to making the world a happier place. We have today people who own millions on the one hand and on the other there are children who’re dying of hunger. God didn’t create this.”
“If I understand correctly, nefs is what we call the Devil. And he prevents us from using all the goodness we possess inside…”
“Yes, you could say that. Metaphors are always helpful. In fact Heaven and Hell according to some Sufis like Muhammed Iqbal are also metaphorical ideas. He believed they’re not physical spaces where we will be going after death but are areas we can create here on earth. Perhaps,
Heaven and Hell exist physically too somewhere on earth and we call them into our lives with our decisions and actions.”
“That is really very deep, Hatef. Could we then say Sufism and other teachings like it are ways of transforming the individual, making him perfect?”
“Well, absolute perfection belongs to God alone. But Sufism talks about a kemal, an individual who has reached the pinnacle of human perfection.
This is the closest we as humans can come to perfection. You see, when we say that God is perfect we don’t mean it by our human standards but that he’s perfect by his own standards. Because we cannot even begin to understand his standards we can never grasp his kind of perfection.”
“I understand. But tell me is the message of Sufism for everyone? Does it for example also apply to people who’re deep in their nefs?”
“Let me answer your question with one of Rumi’s more famous poems.
It’s obviously a translation of the original Persian.
Come, come, whoever you are,
wonderer, worshiper, lover of leaving,
it doesn’t matter.
Ours is not a caravan of despair.
Come, even if you have broken your vows
a thousand times.
Come again and again, come.
Here Rumi’s trying to tell us how this gift of overcoming our nefs is for everyone, whatever his state in life. He says there isn’t really any reason for guilt and despair.
“I want to add something else about Rumi here. He was greatly inspired by the prophet Mohammed. The Prophet himself was a great Sufi. for example he has said: ‘Die before you are dead’. This in fact is a very important principle of Sufism. A Sufi aims to kill his nefs and be
resurrected in love and compassion. This happens through a process called seyr-e-suluk. Through this process a Sufi reaches total freedom from all his earthly desires. Finally, he aims to reach a state of fena fillah. This is where he merges into God. In Buddhism they call it nirvana. After
reaching fena fillah the Sufi only strives to share his state with others.
And in this striving he exhausts himself day after day… all for the love of God.” I take a deep breath.
“How can I meet this Rumi, is he still around?”
I smile because I like the sound of Anna’s innocence.
“I would really like to meet him too. But he left our world about seven and a half centuries ago. Though I believe, he is here among us with his message.”
“Oh. But Hatef, I am quite dazzled by your words. Do you think you could tell me more about Rumi?”
“Well, Rumi was born in Khorasan, a village near Balkh in present-day Afghanistan in 1207. He was known as Rumi, meaning ‘the Roman’, because he grew up in an area under Byzantine rule at that time. His family travelled to Anatolia and eventually settled in Konya under the Turkish
Seldjuk sultanate. Rumi spent the rest of his life in Konya, which is where he was also buried after he died in 1273. Today, Konya is a place of pilgrimage for Sufis across the world.
“After his death his followers, especially his son Sultan Walad founded the Mawlawiyah Sufi Order. They’re also known as the ‘Whirling Dervishes’ because of the whirling dance they do. A dervish goes round and round on his feet with one hand lifted up to the sky and the other facing the earth, at 90 degrees to each other. The head is bent slightly to the side indicating nobility. The dervishes keep this position through the dance celebrating the scattering of God’s love from above over everyone on earth.
The bent head indicates the exalted position of the dervish as an intermediary between the Creator and the created. Dervishes are known to lose themselves completely while dancing. This trance-like state is called sama.
I have seen dervishes whirl for more than an hour.”
“I think I have seen a picture too. They were dancing… whirling in front of a green-domed building, says Anna.
“Yes, this is probably the dergah or mausoleum of Rumi. It is in Konya.
It is where he is buried alongwith his father and other members of his family. This place is visited by hundreds if not thousands of people daily.
You should go if you’re ever in Turkey.”
“Yes, hopefully I will.”
“I really liked that poem of Rumi you just recited. Is there a book where I can read more?”
I think Rumi’s words have worked their magic on Anna.
“Of course. His most important book is called Masnawi, and it is quite amazing. You can find a translation of the Masnawi on the Internet, perhaps. I also recommend The Essential Rumi by Coleman Barks. I always find great joy when I read Rumi. His poems give me hope and strength in moments of despair. There is actually one that I read often.”
“Can you please read it to me now?”
“I knew you’d say that… Here’s The Guest House dedicated especially to you, Anna:
Man is like a guest house
each day brings a new guest
some days comes Joy; others, Sadness
but Awareness is always
an unexpected visitor.
Rumi says, welcome them all
even if there’s a mob of sorrows
sweeping across your house
emptying it out.
Treat every guest with honour
each one’s come to help you
The pleasant Surprise
the dark Thought, Shame, Malice
meet them all at the door laughing.
Be grateful for whoever comes
because each one has been sent
from the beyond to help you.”
“That is really beautiful, Hatef. It really does have the power to speak to everyone.” She seems moved by it. “I think I have quizzed you enough for a day,” she says smiling.
“Yes, you have young lady, but I never get tired talking about Rumi,” I smile back. We fall in this silence together allowing Rumi to sink into our souls.
“Vordingborg! Vordingborg station!”
Another stop less in our journey.
This post is glimpse of my book A Yoik for Anna – A Journey between Two Worlds
Date: November 15th 2011
President Dr. Bashar al Assad
People’s Council of Syria
His Excellency Dr. Bashar al Assad,
AFTQ wants to bring to your attention that since the start of the Syrian Revolution from 15th March 2011, the world is witnessing the worst crisis of human rights violations in Syria. Though the constitution provides many benefits and protections to the Syrian citizens but in reality the Syrians lived under the unwanted regulations of your regime. After the years of your father Hafez al Assad’s authoritarian regime which from the beginning had suppressed the rights and liberty of a normal citizen has the most affected from your rule of suppression.
Syria is now standing at the crossroads of revolution where the government’s legitimacy and Syrians freedom is at stake. When you Mr. President took oath on 17th July 2000 to rein this beautiful and cultural country which have always introduced this world with something great and of a prosperous nature the innocent people of Syria, your own people who have believed in you, trusted you, when you assumed office of this great nation Mr. President these were the people whom you are killing like insects have believed in you and respected you more than ex President Late Hafez al Assad who was also your father had ruled at barrel of gun but His Excellency it was you who came as the ray of hope to this nation who had suffered hard under your father’s rule and now wanted a true democratic political system under which they can practice their rights granting them a complete guarantee of fundamental tools to them.
A law which never differentiate between the same citizen of the same country no matter whether he / she belongs to any communal group or culture or religion, a framework where everyone is equal, where a true Syrian secularism would be portrayed and practiced as the true living reality in which you have always believed into and has regularly said in your interviews given to the international media.
It’s been almost 12 years of your rule but the promise which you have made with undersigned commitments remained unfulfilled at large. Mr. President when you talked about peace it means you have to be at the compromising acceptance with some or more of your strategized demands / requirements. A peace in true meaning is that when two parties agree and respect on the compromising manner in order to serve the purpose of peace which will only be possible if your government thinks in a more liberal and transparent way keeping in view of interests of the common man. Peace cannot exist if you dictate your terms Mr. President but if you agree to common terms to get both ends meet at the juncture of harmony.
His Excellency you sound great when you speak but you felt worse when you work for peace. Shooting your own people, killing the innocents, not even sparing the families of those who stand united against you is not in the person’s faith who believes in bringing peace to his country and to the region as a whole. When you talk about secularism it is good sign of optimism but Mr. President till your speeches have delivered only the words not the actions. When a Syrian President talks about his nation being secular it means Syria being a secular nation but in practice and in reality the air taste’s something un-usual and different.
Secularism doesn’t mean that one single party and a community will rule the country and others will be denied the basic access to the functioning. When we say that we are secular then that means members of all communities shares the equal rights and power to rule and govern the country however this has never been the case in Syria under yours and your fathers regime as when the new constitution in 1973 was adopted for Syria.
Article #1 under Basic Principals of Syrian Constitution states that:
(1) The Syrian Arab Republic is a democratic, popular, socialist, and sovereign state. No part of its territory can be ceded. Syria is a member of the Union of the Arab Republics.
(2) The Syrian Arab region is a part of the Arab homeland.
(3) The people in the Syrian Arab region are a part of the Arab nation. They work and struggle to achieve the Arab nation’s comprehensive unity.
Article #7 the constitutional oath is as follows:
“I swear by God the Almighty to sincerely preserve the republican, democratic, and popular system, respect the constitution and the laws, and watch over the interests of the people and the security of the homeland, and work and struggle for the realization of the Arab nation’s aims of unity, freedom, and socialism.”
Article # 8 betrays the concept of democracy
The leading party in the society and the state is the Socialist Arab Baath Party. It leads a patriotic and progressive front seeking to unify the resources of the people’s masses and place them at the service of the Arab nation’s goals.
Article # 10 which guarantees the right to practice democracy
People’s councils are establishments elected in a democratic way at which the citizens exercise their rights in administering the state and leading the society.
But till now nothing as mentioned in the respected constitution has ever been felt even by an ordinary citizen of Syria, none of the rights given in the constitution has ever practiced except the power vested under article #8 which betrays all the liberties and access given to the citizens of Syria.
Since the adoption of this amended constitution and the start of your respected family’s regime the great nation of civilizations never lived its glory in the modern era where people enjoys freedom, liberty, fundamental rights and power of being empowered remained always a distant dream to all living under the shadow of your vicinity.
Mr. President when you talk about democracy you say because the word is mentioned in your adopted constitution it gives a different meaning to it while disputing the same with the real one. Mr. President when you talk about this power system of governance it means that you have to provide every citizen an equal opportunity to take part in the administration of the country where person from every community can share the power on equal grounds with your respective authority.
AFTQ believes that the vibrant and working democracy is that where every citizen takes part in the election process, where public opinion is always consider in terms of passing any regulation, any law, where even single amendment in the law or even in the constitution seek common man’s opinion. Where people chooses their own leader not the assigned council or which the body which has never enjoyed the legitimacy of its own people, a true democracy is that where all the government bodies and its functioning are accountable to the general public and where even an ordinary citizen enjoys full access to all the public accounts and internal communication.
One cannot say that Syria is a democratic country where the word is just like dust in the eyes of the world irked people always throughout the independent Syrian history. There has never been any moment in the entire Assad’s regime tenure when the nation of Syria ever seen the overwhelming support and contribution in the process of nation building in which Syrians happily taken part and been encouraged to do so and as a single party regime and its governance cannot bring the democracy alive in its country while functioning as the opposite, a liberal and open democracy is where when in the country multi party political system exists competing to rule the country and representing different communities hence satisfying also the criteria of being secular whereas another article of the constitution article # 12 disputes the single party regime and your ruling authority:
Article # 12 which guarantees the Syrians protection of their fundamental rights:
The state is at the people’s service. Its establishments seek to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens and develop their lives. It also seeks to support the political organizations in order to bring about self-development.
After getting to this article #12 it has been clear by now that since the time your family has came to power Syrians were living their lives in the false statehood which have always cheated them either by making new amendments in the constitution or by just giving betrayal worded speeches. The people you think raise their hands in support of your rule will betray one day just like your friend late Col Gaddafi was betrayed by his own people who first at the start of the rebellion shook their hands in the streets of Tripoli and then they fought against him as the tide turned in the favor of rebels.
Mr. President, we at the AFTQ would like to make you aware that you still have got time to improve yourself and clean your leadership’s image in the eyes of your entire Syrian population. It is the time when you can decide about you and your family’s fate either by stepping down from your posts or by paving the way to true democracy which is the current need and the desire of your own nation at large.
His Excellency you talk about your legitimacy but AFTQ wants to make you clear that you and your government has lost their legitimacy in the minds, hearts and eyes of the general public and when the government or a leader losses his legitimacy then he must take the positive nation building measures which the nation requires and demanding the most at present, as in your case people and the nation of Syria wants the working democracy and freedom to practice their fundamental rights where they can elect and decide their future of the country and make accountable their leaders.
AFTQ urge you to take the immediate positive building measures otherwise the day is not far when you even would not have a moment to apologize to your people and to your nation at large. The same which was done in Libya and the kind of treatment there the leaders received at the hands of their own people should be an eye opener for you and for your cabinet which too has proven with the recent developments made by the respected Arab league by expelling your great nation from the regional grouping which you Mr. President has always supported throughout now stand against you and your regime.
Instead of warning the entire league Mr. President you should have taken it as lesson and approaching tide which could uproot your entire governance and political entity with its flow like storm.
Now standing at the juncture of heightening revolution of the Arab Revolution Spring’s series here are few questions which put you on account to the crimes and atrocities done by you and your forces on the innocent people of Syria:
1.) Do you think it is right to suppress the people who are demanding their rights to live freely in their country?
2.) How can you justify the genocide committed by you and your regime in which your killing drive has claimed 3500 innocent lives and still counting?
3.) Will you justify your measures of handling the Syrian Revolution?
4.) Is this true that your government and your policies discriminate among the distinct citizens of your country?
5.) How would you prove that your forces and your ministers did not commit any human rights violations?
6.) Is this justified in any manner to deny the rights and freedom of the people?
7.) Do you think being a democratic country the Alawi community loses its presence in the new democratic Syria?
8.) Did you expect the same fate as of Late Col Gaddafi?
9.) Is your government fair enough to run the country transparently?
The nation His Excellency builds on trust, on harmony not on murders, not on hatred. A true leader rules his country not by stick but by love, by coordination. You can silent the cries of your people not by bullets but by meeting their demands, by standing tall to their aspirations. Fulfill your unfulfilled promises and transform yourself as democratic leader not the dictator.
AFTQ hope and wishes that after reading this and witnessing the circumstances of this Syrian Revolution you will not stop yourself from laying the path to democracy and will stop killing your people who once honored and believed in you as their leader.
Founder and Chairman
Armed For The Quill
Since 2008 the world has seen and been witnessing many revolutions which either being dealt with force or sometimes with love but as the year passes and the world stepped in to the second decade of this century the year 2011 started with bang. A wave, a tide which filled the world and common man to stand against the growing drawbacks of capitalism, from last 11 months the world has been witnessing the sea of revolutions across Arab world and their dictators but what no-one had predicted was the movement which started in those countries who live and work the opposite way unlike their middle east partners.
The 99% movement started with a few handfuls by the general public which suffered under the enormous greediness of 1% wealthy humans now stand guarded for their rights and share in the nation’s treasuries which were filled by collecting the money from these taxpayers. These are those people who work day and night to ear the two meals a day and meet their both ends meet. These are those who work as laborers, servants, those who belong to both blue-collar and white-collar segment of employees, those who belongs to lower and middle class of society.
The day global recession started the effected population was not industrialists or corporate or bureaucrats but the common public who faced layoffs, salary cuts, bank account closures, loan cancellations, demotions and many such financial horrors which crippled the entire family survival and their personal existence. This resulted in the agitations and revolt which exposed the entire failure of the agencies and political turmoil across the entire world map particularly in Western economies which are so-called the growth drivers of the world economy at large.
Trillions of dollars of wealth was misused in the name of aid and assistance by the banks and government which was the hard-earned tax payers’ money. Un-accountable loans and non traceable credit transactions’ were noted. Even those banks that have treasuries / bills of trillions of dollars were declared insolvent hence making common people to lose their entire life savings and its availability. Many banks and corporate took the un-wanted advantage of declaring bankruptcy and government bailout packages which too went in an unaccountable manner nevertheless losing the remaining reserves of the poor man’s money.
The wealth must be shared equally and accordingly not just on the basis of one’s profile and desires of investments. Governments are for governance and not for corporate interests. The widening gap of national wealth must be addressed in a viable and sensible manner. The policies are for nations and for people not for only elites who are just one percent and the rest who builds the nation are 99%. Otherwise what’s the use of being democratic and developed if we suffer and others enjoy even after looting a common man’s savings. What’s the use of giving Nobel Peace Prize to Mr. Obama if Mr. President cannot even addressed his own peoples’ demand and cannot silent their grief.
What’s the difference between the NYC Mayor Mr. Michael R. Bloomberg and the Dictators of Arab World who has also been using force against their own people, what kind of justice is this if the democratic and liberal country like America who is role model of democracy and freedom for the world will use force and the mayor of its most wealthiest city reacts like Hitler then invisible creator may know where these innocent people who are just want answers to their sorrows and problems and that too in a peaceful manner not even disturbing an insect in their way.
The respected Government of the United States and the city mayor must answer the world, the world that they always dictated the terms of peace, freedom, non-violence, democracy, liberty and human rights, justice and many such things which even at times of theirs action didn’t follows and curbed, suppressed the public by flexing their muscles on the harmless and empty-handed peaceful citizens just to remove the stains from the false and hollow image of un justified system which made its own people helpless, poor and needy but still the war to fight for demands continues.
World and the respective government especially the respected authorities of the US should now start a process of reforms and remedial policies which would not save them from collapsing but also the rest of the world’s structure.
22/07/11 – Oslo Bomb Blast which rocked the Norwegian capital today killed 93 people and injured several.
Armed For The Quill and on behalf of all our members / colleagues we condemn this heinous and in humane act of terrorism which devastated the land of Nobel peace which has always work for and speak for peace. Armed For The Quill is standing with the peaceful and innocent people of Norway in the times of their un-expected sorrows and moments of grievances.
AFTQ ask for support and help for the Norwegian people and seeks international community to bring those who are behind this act against humanity and want them to bring to trail.
May 17th is a special day as it marks the Independence Day and the establishment of the constitution that was signed in 1814. It’s a National holiday and celebrated not only by Norwegians in Norway but also by those who are living abroad.
The day is known for its parades with children and adults and the longest parade takes place in the capital each year. Each elementary school district arranges its own parade with marching bands between each school. The parades takes the children through the community as they make stops at homes of senior citizens, war memorials and many other places to pay their respects. The Oslo parade includes 100 schools and marching bands as they walk through the city and pass the Royal Palace where the Royal family greets the people from the main balcony as children sing the national anthem and the royal anthem. The event is broadcasted on TV every year with comments and local reports from celebrations around the country.
Immense beauty of Norway
It is not enough to describe Norway with only one word. There is many aspects with the county that has made it one of the best countries to live in.
First of all, the countries environmental policy has brought green solution, less pollution, more green areas and safety for areas where children play and go to school. The air is very clean as for the drinking water as well.
Norway is known for its beautiful nature and the fjords. Tourists come from all over the world to enjoy the green nature and the amazing rivers that looks like it’s taken out from a fairy tale. It’s a land of intense beauty as the Aurora shapes the sky with its different colors illuminating the mountains and deep rivers. I like to spend time by the harbor in Oslo in warm spring and summer days watching the ships sail and people walking by. As I travel around sometimes, I usually find myself spending time sitting on balcony of hotels from the Victorian era as I drink coffee.
Besides being a kingdom, Norway has also one of the best democracy systems together with full freedom of speech. It is known to be a peaceful nation who always acts as peacemakers and negotiators rather than going to war. One example is the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden that happened in a peaceful way.
The Nobel Peace Center acts as the voice and meeting place where discussions and reflections related to war, peace and conflict resolution is in focus and important part of the Norwegian culture as the Peace Prize is awarded to the person who “shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”
Norway is ranked 16th out of 43 countries in the Europe region and with its high income tax, the population benefits well from it when it comes to health care, social help and welfare. The welfare system is stabile in the country and makes sure that everyone who needs help gets their basic needs.
Norway is a constitutional monarchy where the King has symbolic power and the power is with the state. The politics takes place in the parliamentary representative constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the King’s council and the cabinet, led by the PM. Legislative power is vested in both the government elected within a multi party system. The Judiciary is independent of the executive branch and the legislature.
Norwegian people are very friendly and warm people. They value human rights and are a peaceful nation. On this day, I congratulate every Norwegian on their independence day and wish for more peaceful years to come.
I heard about polygamy some days ago and researched on the phenomenon, but while I was reading on this subject, I came across news that was way over the border of polygamy. I was laughing hard as I read about a man in Nigeria that has married 107 times. Today, when it is hard enough to deal with only 1 wife, I don’t understand how this man have the patience of having this much women in his home. If he goes to work outside the home and doesn’t come back before late evening then it is understandable.
Bello Maasaba, working as a healer in Nigeria has married 107 women throughout the years. The 87 year old man has 86 wives now aged between 19 and 64 years old and he stated that he will continue to get married.
He has already divorced 12 wives because of “disobedience” and is currently looking for “Ms Right”. Maasaba had a total of 185 children but only 133 are alive and the youngest one is only 1 month old. The city of Niger is run by the Sharia law and the city administration told Masaaba 3 years ago to divorce 82 of the wife’s so that the number of wives would be 4.
We all know about examples of men in their late 70s who are spending most of their time chasing women and girls. Hugh Hefner and the famous Silvio Berlusconi who said that he was “superman” when a person stated that he needed psychology help for the problem.
When Indian got independence in 1947 leaders approached evry community to encourage them for their participation in forming proper national constitution. It was the time when few laws & reservations were passed on the demand & requirements of the specifc communities; in this race though suffered & torned apart by the partition Indian Muslim community was still confident that they will make it to the national liberty & will enjoy the social status which this community enjoying from centuries. The thought priviledged section of the Indian society was then started to diminish in environment of nationalism & economic development. Tied in the useless ideologies & reserved vains Muslims contibution to the nation fell drastically & were left behind in the race of community development. When the reforms were introduced it was felt that there will be a massive change in the Muslim society but to no avail. Sikhs improved, Jains Improved, Hindus were raised from their age old boundations of caste system, Christains improved, Buddhists who were just known of their monk culture & traditions were also moved ahead in the society but when nation looked towards its Muslim citizens they were struggling to survive & facing the threat of radicalization. Though every Indian citizen whether he or she has equal rights in the constitution the muslim society at large was never benefited from it. The reason for this is just because the system with in which neither the Islam recognise nor the society have enrooted the community as a whole which have not only affected the development of the Muslims in India but have also pushed them backward positioning them as the least productive society of India.
Indian constitution recognize the religious education & its system as per religious laws. In just 60 years millions of madarsas have sprunged up across India without having a proper strategy which can streamlined them with the national output, many religious Islamic centers have been formed, Three central universities were exclusively established but the condition remained the same & with little exception it further got deteriorated instead of growing. The major role in the demise of the Indian Muslim society was played by the clerics themselves as they have never accepted the reformed & an influential non muslim society & its culture. Every time they talk about the religious duties but what exactly the rights which Islam gives to its followers were never told clearly & specifically. The conditions now are such that even in centers of their religious sutdies like universities, madarsas, other centres hardly have proper scholars & professional efficiency rate like the education that is given in the madarsas hardly stands out as world requirement. The ideology they are taught about is not fully transparent rather its is more dark & short sighted consising the scholars in the dark world of fundamentalism. Whenever a society wants to move forward & there is a talk of upliftment especially for women their voices started sounding out from the corners of these institutions & the Fatwa is passed without any consideration of proper Sharia & the opinion of the society. They says women should not work, they should not go outside the household, girls education is not important but they never says that women should be uplifted in the society, women must be respected & allowed to work, children at any cost must be send to school, abortions are not allowed, divorces must be prevented, jobless youths should get to work; they never fight against the odds of polygamy which though allowed but on certain rightfull conditions under sharia but now a days has become a way to get more bodily pleasure. Due to their blind perceptions the Islamic society in India has now been divided into many factions or radical school of thoughts having specific ideologies & false histrical proofs. The contidion of Indian Muslim society is deteriorated to such an extent that only 14% of muslims women contributes to the work force in the muslim society national figure is much less even lesser than the other religions, there are only 6% muslims who are qualified enough are working in the public departments. With 34% of the contibution in the national population muslims economic contirbution is hardly 5% in the national GDP. Non of the muslim politician after 1970s has made to better political ministeries. Confined to & oftenly related to their torned vains of Pakistan, muslims just because of their low self esteemed & un acceptable care less perceptions are now being discriminated & are linked to foreign spying agnecies. This has also resulted into a various restructions in their beureucratic promotions & posistional restrictions in the institutions such as like Secret services, Armed Forces, Politics as well as in Private sector too. There is a need of proper social reforms in the Indian Muslim society where every member of it can move & stand shoulder to shoulder with others contributers. The centres of muslim education must be streamlined with the national education system. There is also need of reforms in the clerical system in India where clerics must know about the actual situation of the society & must take decision in more familiar & peaceful manner. Women in Islam always enjoyed the liberty & respect as well as in Indian society too whose law & contitution’s portion also considers & practice many sharia laws & its system exclusively for Muslim society. It is the only constitution in the world which have sections & articles & laws compatible to all the religions. Fatwa order must be respected & circumstancial position of the society must be understand properly before issuing it. It should not be issued just in case or on the bases of personal opinion but rather it should be issued with the proper consideration of sharia & the local laws which too are compatible with the Islamic Sharia here.
India is a host of many great islamic institutions like for example: Aligarh Muslim University (Asia’s Largest & India’s Oldest Central University), Osmania University, Jamia Milia Islamia, Dar Ul Uloom – Deoband (world’s second largest islamic madarsa & university), Centre & Head Quarters of Bareillvi School of thought – Bareilly, Centre & Head Quarters of Jamait E Islami, Islamic Centre of India, Islamic Research Foundation – India. India is also a host of world’s biggest Waqf Board & has separate Ministry of Hajj. There are also several big deemed universities dedicated to Muslim minority but also exclusively for Islamic education.
Clothing and color choices are strongly connected together, and it is a striking correlation between red garments and power.
Like women, men do also follow the cultural codes that come with the situation and certain patterns and colors as well. A book written by a Swedish professor distinguishes between; money power, physical power and beauty of power.
At the beginning of the 2000s we saw clearly how men would belong to the cultural elite which are knowledge power, dressed in full black and often with a polo shirt to focus on the face and so used the 1600s professors, and many other scholars to do. They dressed because they were men without body, just brains. So why is it so important for men to show that they have power? Maybe because it is linked to masculinity and that power is defined as male.
The red tie
The Norwegian PM chooses often to wear a red tie. Probably not only because he is socio democrat as even the Swedish PM who is conservative often wears a red tie. George W. Bush had very often a red tie, and he was definitely not a socialist. Some studies shows and indicates that today’s top politicians often wear a red tie, and especially when they want to show that they have the power by a political meeting or when they will emerge with particular gravity, for example on TV. They express power to act with his red tie.
So why does red signal rank? The authors see both culture and biology at work. In human societies across the globe, red traditionally has been part of the regalia of the rich and powerful. Along with this learned association between red and status, the authors point to biological roots of human behavior. In non-human primates, like mandrills and gelada baboons, red is an indicator of male dominance and is expressed most intensely in alpha males. Females of these species mate more often with alpha males, who in turn provide protection and resources.
“When women see red it triggers something deep and probably biologically engrained,” said Elliot. “We say in our culture that men act like animals in the sexual realm. It looks like women may be acting like animals as well in the same sort of way.”
Historical view of the color red
If we travel back in time, we can see that in the Middle Ages and renaissance, it was very common and important to demonstrate masculinity through the color and clothing. And as for the nobles and royals there was only one color; RED.
The Duke of Urbino – one of Machiavelli’s favorite princes would wear red from head to toe when he was pictured. Red was also an obvious choice in the Catholic Church’s powerful cardinals and Napoleon used red when he was on the top of his career as emperor. Ancient China, Japan and sub-Saharan Africa all used the vibrant tint to convey prosperity and status. Ancient Rome’s elite were literally called “the ones who wear red.” Even today, the authors note, businessmen wear a red tie to denote confidence, while celebrities and dignitaries are feted by “rolling out the red carpet.”
Women that time preferred brown, beige, pale pink, pale green and other pastel colors. But the 1800s marked the end of the color party and men went from being peacocks to gray and black sparrows and red became the color for women and children.
Studies in University of Rochester
Studies made by researchers at the University of Rochester found out that men wearing the color red become more attractive to the woman who is unaware of this color effect. “We found that women view men in red as higher in status, more likely to make money and more likely to climb the social ladder. And it’s this high-status judgment that leads to the attraction,” Professor Elliot said.
The researchers found that the red effect was limited to status and romance as red made the man seem more powerful, attractive, and sexually desirable, but did not make the man seem more likable, kind, or sociable. The effect was consistent across cultures: undergraduates in the United States, England, Germany, and China all found men more attractive when wearing or bordered by red and the effect was limited to women. When males were asked to rate the attractiveness of a pictured male, color made no difference in their responses. In earlier work, Elliot documented that men are more attracted to women in red but the red effect depends on the context.
The same effect goes for the red neckties. As red is a very powerful color and when it is matched properly it will create a more powerful image allowing you to look like you are in authority and power. Most guys wearing red ties are those guys that are oozing with self-confidence and self-esteem. Red represents powerful sensations such as influence, confidence and even strong secrets even adventurous personalities rarely use red for their neckties.
If you want to match red neckties with shirt, go for the safest which is white. When it is worn on a white background, it will create an enigmatic look and irresistible attractiveness. Some men tend to avoid using neckties that are colored red especially when it simply does not represent the kind of personality that they want to project. Subtle personalities will shy away from red because it is not their color. But, if you want to create a more powerful look for your next corporate event and you are dressed to impress then red ties, black suit and white shirt would be the best outfit for you.
Research done by Daniela Niesta Kayer, University of Rochester; Tobias Greitemeyer, University of Innsbruck; Stephanie Lichtenfeld, University of Munich; Richard H. Gramzow, University of Southampton; Markus A. Maier, University of Munich; and Huijun Liu, Tainjin Medical University.
The research was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and an Excellence Guest Professorship at the University of Munich.
University of Rochester
After World War II the shadow of another possible war now looming over the sky which if comes into picture the enemy at the gates will bang it will full lightening; the name of that shadow was Cold War era which started immediately after the much daunted D-Day. The fear of Soviet invasion was irresistible as after the war more than half of the Europe was under communist control & influence. So the Western European countries of UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands & Luxembourg signed the Treaty of Brussels on 17th March 1948 which is considered as the precursor of NATO. But in order to counter balance the power of Soviet Union participation of US was necessary, so the talks to form new alliance started immediately after it. These talks resulted into the formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation on 4th April 1949 with the signing of North Atlantic Treaty in Washington D.C which increased the horizon of a complete military alliance including the members of Treaty of Brussels & new members the US, Canada, Italy, Iceland, Portugal, Norway & Denmark with its headquarters based in Belgium with its Parliament General Assembly which meets at an Annual Session. But the first few years of its formation were full of crisis as the influence of US was a major concern in the organisation which resulted into French withdrawal from NATO & development of French nuclear deterrent. With the start of Korean War NATO galvanised its military structure under the command of US Marines. However after the formation of Warsaw Pact by the Eastern Bloc, NATO started developing its standardization program for its arsenal systems. The reason for its non involvement in Falkland War was that since its formation & as its name suggest that NATO always want to limit itself above the Tropic of Cancer so, since the southern hemisphere is not under its operational limit NATO kept itself out of that.
Post Cold War: After the collapse of USSR & the German reunification in 1990 NATO has increased its member states & limits which has now crossed the borders after the Prague summit of 2002 held for the first time in the Eastern Bloc country which enlarged its horizon by including Albania, Croatia, Poland, Latvia, Romania, Hungary, Estonia, Mauritania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania has been brought under the NATO umbrella while Ukraine & Georgia were told that they will be included as a prominent members. The inclusion of these states irked Russia who has now threatened NATO of withdrawing from CTE which was signed between RUSSIA & NATO as a peace agreement due to the posting of US anti missile defence system which as per Russia’s concern will trigger a new arms race in the region. The first NATO intervention was in 1995 bombings of Bosnia & Herzegovina and in 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia. With the inclusion of Turkey, Spain & Greece NATO now controls almost all the bordering points with Russia.
Post 9/11 Terror Attacks: caused NATO to invoke Article 5 of the NATO Charter for the first time in its history. The Article says that an attack on any member shall be considered to be an attack on all with invocation of its Article 5 NATO invaded Afghanistan in 2001 & consequently invading Iraq in 2002 under its military force command of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).
Groups under NATO:
EURO – Atlantic Partnership,
Individual Partnership Action Plans,
2008-2009 Recession: NATO which has 70% of total world’s defence budget announced huge budget cuts due to the economic meltdown in the majority stake holding countries of US & Western Europe Which accounts 43% by the US alone & the 15% by UK, France & Germany.
Future Enlargement plans of NATO are for Asia to confront China’s rise & the nuclear crisis of North Korea, Iran, Burma, Pakistan & Syria.
March 20: Purim ends at sundown (Judaism, 2011); Equinox Earth Day (2011); Nowruz in Iran, Central Asia, and Zoroastrianism (2011); Independence Day in Tunisia (1956)
- 235 – Maximinus Thrax succeeded to the throne of the Roman Empire, the first of the so-called barracks emperors who gained power by virtue of his command of the army.
- 1602 – The Dutch East India Company was established.
- 1923 – Arts Club of Chicago hosted the opening of Pablo Picasso’s first United States showing, entitled Original Drawings by Pablo Picasso, becoming an early proponent of modern art in the U.S.
- 1944 – World War II: Four thousand U.S. Marines made a landing on Emirau Island in the Bismarck Archipelago to develop an airbase as part of Operation Cartwheel.
- 1987 – The antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) (chemical structure pictured) became the first antiviral medication approved for use against HIV and AIDS.
While protesters in Libya are attacked by armed insurgents the country is met with the UN resolution on no-fly zone and expanded sanctions. Bahrain’s security forces shoots down unarmed civilian demonstrators in the streets, breaks into private homes and have blocked the country’s largest hospital – where doctors cannot escape and patients cannot get in.
But still Bahrain’s brutal ruler Hamad al-Khalifa and his regime is not brought before the UN Security Council. Maybe it’s because this is a country that both the West and the Arab world need.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has expressed his deepest concern for what is happening in Bahrain and EU and NATO has asked authorities in the country to refrain from violence and resolve problems in the country through political dialogue.
The attack on demonstrators in Manama and other cities Wednesday was extremely brutal and reminded of Kadhafis forces. 6 people were killed and hundreds must have been injured. But the most serious is the situation at Salmaniya Hospital in the capital Manama, Bahrain’s largest and most modern. For some reason, the authorities found that the staff of this hospital is the demonstrator’s supporters – and must be punished – in a manner that violates everything called human rights.
SECURITY FORCES, according to eyewitnesses from both Saudi Arabia and Bahrain surrounded the hospital as no patients were allowed to enter, however, doctors and nurses who have tried to move out to retrieve the wounded, gets beaten up. Medicines and medical supplies is needed and cry for help from hospitals from telephone alone says; “Why will not the world help us?”
Now, sick people, whether they are shot or are acutely ill, brought to smaller hospitals with equipment that in many cases is not good enough to take care of their injuries. The government cares little for so long as the world is most concerned with Kadhafi.
What makes Bahrain so special?
As a small island in the Persian Gulf, the island is strategically important to the oil-rich area. With growing criticism of the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain has become more important and with such U.S. interests, the country has also importance in the NATO context. The Sunni Muslim King Hamad is a good ally of the West, so he has a far greater scope in terms of violence than less good friends. So it is just.
But Bahrain is also important for the Arab countries, not least for the six members of the Gulf Council GCC, in which Saudi Arabia plays the lead role. Golf Council cooperates politically, militarily and economically. In the geopolitical game is primarily one enemy you are interested in, and it is Iran.
Nearly 70% of the citizens of Bahrain’s Shiite Muslims, but Arabs . The possibility that they will team up with their Persian-Iranian co-religionists is small, but this argument is used as a pretext for the necessity of maintaining “stability” in Bahrain. Saudi Arabia has in principle a more urgent problem. The majority of the population in the oil-rich Al-Hasa province in eastern Saudi Arabia’s Shiite’s and the Saudi royal family fears a spillover effect from Bahrain. It is perhaps the main reason that the country Monday sent 1,000 soldiers to Bahrain to help the King Hamad to quell the revolt.
پختون ولی جو صرف اسلام کی طرح کسی بھی افغانستان کے لئے اس سے بھی اتنا ہی اہم ہے 1857 کے بعد سب سے زیادہ Rohilla پشتونوں کی شکست ہے جو Rohilla سلطنت کے طور پر اور سخت 1947 کے بعد شمالی بھارت کے بڑے بڑے علاقے راج کے بعد کا سامنا کرنا پڑا ہے. طرزعمل اور پٹھان کے لئے زندگی کا لائحہ عمل کا کوڈ دہائیوں کے ذریعے ایک مشق میں تیز کمی دیکھی ہے. جیسا کہ بھارت تقسیم اور بنیادی معلومات پاکستان اور بعض کے نو تشکیل ریاست گیا ہے ان کے آبائی علاقے میں واپس پناہ اسی کے خون کا باقی حصہ لیا ان کی ثقافت اور روایات جو ایک بار ملک ہے جہاں ان کے کوڈ کو قانون تھا حکومت کے ساتھ زندہ رہنے کے لئے جدوجہد کئی کے لئے اور جان لاکھوں کے لئے. ساتھ بدلتے وقت اور ایک سیاسی جائزہ روایات کے لئے مشکل کام کیے جب اس کے اثرات افغانستان کے صرف ایک پرانی شان کے ساتھ بائیں اقلیتی کا تعاقب کیا اور محب وطن وعدوں سے بچ. ساتھ ہی جین پول دوسرے مذہب اور کمیونٹیز کے ساتھ مل رہی انٹر تبدیل سماجی تبدیلی کی ساری نئی آسمان آتا ہے.
روایات اور اخلاق کی کمی : روایات اور مہمان نوازی ، محبت لوک رقص ، گانے اور دیگر ثقافتی سرگرمیوں کی طرح ، عدل و انصاف ، بخشش ، روایت پسند خصوصیات گئے زمانے اور کی طرف سے کے الفاظ تھے بچ گئے انٹر نسلی شادیوں کے ساتھ ملا کر لئے گئے تو. پھتون کوڈ جو افغان اور ان کے قبائل کے قوانین ہمیشہ کے لیے گم ہو گئے ، جیسا کہ نئی نسل میں مزید چھوٹے یا کوئی ان کے بلند کے عنوان اور عام طور پر نئی ہندوستانی سماج میں ان کی منظوری کے نقصان کے نتیجے میں والدین کی طرف سے منظور علم کے ساتھ رہ گئے تھے. پشتون میں جرگہ کے نقصان پر بھارت میں بائیں سے 1947 کے بعد کا م برائےمکمل روایتی گر. اتحاد و مساوات کا کوڈ کو اسلام کے طور پر کھو جنگ لڑی میں بھارت کو تقسیم کر دیا پھیر لیا اپنے سماجی ڈھانچے لکھ کر لگا کے واسطے سے سکولوں کے ساتھ متعدد جماعت اور نظریات میں یہ الگ کرنا.
Rohilla سلطنت کے تحت بھارت میں پختون ولی کے مراکز : جیسے شہروں لاہور ، رامپر ، میرٹھ ، لکھنؤ ، امروہہ ، سمنسل ، مجففرنگر ، شاہجہامپر ، سہارنپور ، دہلی ، آگرہ اور بہت سے بے شمار شہروں میں جہاں ایک بار پشتون حکومت اور نکھرا تھا افغان ثقافت کی چھوٹ گیا جس پختون ولی کی قبر پر بنائے گئے تھے. سب سے زیادہ نقصان جو افغانوں کا سامنا کرنا پڑا نقصان اور ان کی زبان پشتو کا کوئی فائدہ نہیں ہے جہاں ایک وقت میں پوری قوم پڑھتا ہے اور فخر اور شان کے ساتھ بولتے ہیں لیکن پشتو اب بھی سکھایا ہے جو کچھ اس میں اعلی تعلیم کی پیشکش اداروں کے متن کی کتابوں میں موجود تھا.
پٹھان معاشرے میں آج شاید ہی کوئی کوڈ یا مشہور بھارت میں بلایا خان ان کے طرز عمل کی آبائی کوڈ جو بھی ہے اب مکمل طور پر افغان معاشرے کے نام نہاد مغربی اثر و رسوخ کی دھول میں گم ہی امتوں کو یہاں بچ جانے والے کی طرف سے اپنی اقدار اور مذہب سے بڑھ کر ہے پیروی . خون کی لائن کے نقصان کے ساتھ بھارتی پٹھان اپنی روایات اور ہے پہلے ہی افغانستان میں جو ان پر پابندی کا افغانی میں یا پابندی میں جبکہ نسل پر بھارتی پٹھان کے طور پر ان کی بھارتی بائیں بلا صرف اسرائیل کہہ کے طور پر ممتاز سے الگ کی سنگین مستقبل کا سامنا ہے.
ایک نظر اور روایتی گجل ، قوالی یا صوفی افغان پشتون کو دیسی موسیقی ، لوک رقص ، جمہور علماء کرام نے شاعری کا لطف کر سکتے ہیں. تاریخی افغانوں کی طرف سے تشکیل یادگاریں ابھی بھی یاد پورے بھارت اور احترام ہے جو سیاحوں کے لاکھوں ہر سال اپنی طرف متوجہ کے ساتھ برقرار کھڑے ہیں.
یہ حکم ہے جو صدیوں سے بھارت کی حکومت اب ہے کہ ہندوستانی تاریخ کا متن اس کھو سائے سے بچ جانے والے کی کتابوں میں ہی موجود تھے.
Pashtunwali which is equally important for any Afghan just like Islam to him has suffered most after 1857 after the defeat of Rohilla Pashtuns who ruled the large swaths of North India as Rohilla Empire & drastically after 1947. The code of conduct & framework of life for pathans have seen a sharp decline in practise through decades. As India got divided & the basics gone to the newly formed state of Pakistan & some took shelter back into their ancestral vicinity the remaining part of the same blood struggles to survive with his culture & traditions which once ruled the nation where their code was the law for many & soul for millions. With the changing times & a political scenario the traditions were hard to carried out when effects of it overwhelmed the Afghan minority left with just a old glory to survive & the patriotic commitments. With the gene pool getting mixed with other religion & communities the inter change brings the whole new sky of sociological transformation.
Loss of Traditions & Code: Traditions & qualities like hospitality, love, justice, forgiveness, tradition like folk dance, songs & other cultural activities were the words of by gone era & if survived were got mixed with the inter ethnic marriages. The Pashtoon code which rules the Afghans & Their tribes were lost forever as the new generations were more left with little or no knowledge passed by their glorified parents resulting in the loss of titles & their acceptance in the new Indian society in general. After 1947 with the loss of Jirga in pashtuns left in India the complete traditional collapsed. The code of unity & equality fought the lost battle as the Islam in India took a divided turn segregating it into numerous jamats & ideologies with the countless schools of thought prescribing their own social structure.
Centers of Pashtunwali in India under Rohilla Empire: The cities like Bareilly, Rampur, Meerut, Lucknow, Amroha, Sambhal, Muzaffarnagar, Shahjahanpur, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra & many countless towns where once Pashtuns had ruled & flourished were the deserts of Afghan culture which were created on the grave of Pashtunwali. The worst loss which the Afghans faced was the loss & no use of their language Pashto where at one time the whole nation reads & speaks with pride & glory though Pashto still taught which survives in the text books of some institutions offering higher studies in it.
Today hardly any code in Pathan society or famously in India called Khans follows their ancestral code of conduct which is even greater than their own values & religion from generations is now completely lost in the dirt of the so called western influence of the Afghan society surviving here. With the loss of the blood line the Indian pathans face grime future of their traditions & is already separated by Afghans who distinguish them as by saying Ban I Afghani or Ban I Isrial while calling their Indian left over generation simply as Indian Pathans.
One can see & enjoy traditional ghazals, qawwalis or sufi music indigenous to Afghan pashtuns, folk dance, poetry by the scholars. Historical monuments built by Afghans are still standing intact with care & respect across India which attracts millions of tourists each year.
The order which governed India for centuries is now only present in the Indian History text books surviving with its lost shadow.