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Archive for the ‘Medical science’ Category

Statistics on Violence Against Women All Over the World

An estimated 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the United States annually for sexual exploitation or labor (US Central Intelligence Agency, 2000).

  • One in five women will be a victim of rape or attempted rape in her lifetime (WHO 1997).
  • In USA a woman is raped every 90 seconds (US Department of Justice, 2000).
  • Somewhere in America a woman is battered, usually by her intimate partner, every 15 seconds (UN Study on the Status of Women, Year 2000).
  • Up to 70% of female murder victims are killed by their male partners (WHO 2008).
  • In Kenya more than one woman a week was reportedly killed by her male partner while in Zambia, five women a week were murdered by a male partner or family member (Joni Seager, 2003).
  • In the Russian Federation 36,000 women are beaten on a daily basis by their husband or partner, according to Russian non-governmental organizations (OMTC, 2003).
  • More than 135 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation and an additional 2 million girls and women are at risk each year (6,000 everyday) (A, UN, 2002).
  • 82 million girls who are now aged 10 to 17 will be married before their 18th birthday (UNFP).
  • In India there are close to 15,000 dowry deaths estimated per year. Mostly they are kitchen knives designed to look like accidents (Injustice Studies, Vol. 1, November 1997).
  • 4 million women and girls are trafficked annually.
  • An estimated one million children, mostly girls, enter the sex trade each year (UNICEF).
  • A study in Zaria, Nigeria found out that 16 per cent of hospital patients treated for sexually transmitted infections were younger than five (UNFPA).

Autopsy with difference – Pathological Research

While pathologists often need to open large parts of the body to investigate possible causes of death of the deceased, a new technique has opened discussions about maybe changing the entire autopsy process, writes BBC.

The technique developed by a research team at the University of Leicester, is to make a small incision in the neck of the deceased, and then they scan the body.

Trauma, fractures and cancer

Through computerized tomography, which is a cross-section image of the body without doing damage, or CT scans, the research team able to scan the body for external trauma, fractures and cancer.

Examination of the heart requires however a slightly different technique, but even here there is no more than a cut in the neck that is needed. A catheter is brought through the incision down to the arteries around the heart. Air and white liquid injected through the catheter, before a CT scan allows a detailed search for heart disease.

The technique, which has been tested on 33 people, has determined causes of death by 80 % accuracy. Sarah Saunder, who leads the research team, believes this method is as good at estimating the causes of death, like the original and it will also cost less to implement, and far more effective, she argues.

But it is still a disagreed method as other pathologists around Europe think it will be rather expensive to implement this technique as well as that the old method is the most secure one.

Cancer & Its Cells

آخرين اخبار درباره سرطان از بيمارستان جان هاپکينز

1- هر شخص داراي سلول هاي سرطاني در بدن خود است .اين سلول هاي سرطاني در آزمايشهاي استاندارد خود را نشان نمي­دهند تا آنکه به مقدار چند ميليارد سلول افزايش يابند. زماني که پزشکان به اشخاص مبتلا به سرطان اعلام مي­کنند که ديگر در بدن آنها سلول سرطاني وجود ندارد، اين حالت فقط بدان معناست که آزمايشها ديگر قادر به رديابي و پيدا کردن سلولهاي سرطاني نيست زيرا آن سلولها به مقدار قابل رديابي شدن در بدن وجود ندارند.

Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until they have multiplied to a few billion. When doctors tell cancer patients that there are no more cancer cells in their bodies after treatment, it just means the tests are unable to detect the cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size

۲- سلولهاي سرطاني بين شش تا ده مرتبه در دوره زندگي يک انسان پيدا مي­شوند.

Cancer cells occur between 6 to more than 10 times in a person’s lifetime

3- زمانيکه سيستم ايمني انسان قوي باشد سلولهاي سرطاني از بين مي­روند و از ايجاد تومور سرطاني جلوگيري مي­شود.

When the person’s immune system is strong the cancer cells will be destroyed and prevented from multiplying and forming tumors

4- زمانيکه شخص بيماري سرطان دارد نشانه آنست که وي داراي کاستيهاي تغذيه­اي شده است. اين کاستي ممکن است منشا ژنتيک، محيطي، غذاها و عواملي درشيوه زندگي باشد.

When a person has cancer it indicates the person has multiple nutritional deficiencies. These could be due to genetic, environmental, food and lifestyle factors.

5- براي غلبه بر کاستي هاي متعدد تغذيه­اي، تغيير در رژيم غذايي شامل اضافه کردن بعضي مخلفات غذايي، سيستم ايمني بدن را تقويت مي­کند.

to overcome the multiple nutritional deficiencies, changing diet and including supplements will strengthen the immune system.

6- شيمي درماني ضمن آنکه باعث مسموم کردن فوري سلولهاي سرطان است که سريع رشد مي­کند، سلولهاي سالم بدن درمغز استخوان و ديواره روده­ها و غيره را که سريع رشد مي­کند را نيز از بين مي­برد و مي­تواند سبب ضايعه عضو بدن مثل کبد، کليه­ها، قلب، ريه­ها و غيره شود.

Chemotherapy involves poisoning the rapidly-growing cancer cells and also destroys rapidly-growing healthy cells in the bone marrow, gastro-intestinal tract etc, and can cause organ damage, like liver, kidneys, heart, lungs etc.

7- پرتوگيري ضمن آنگه سلولهاي سرطاني را نابود مي­کند سلولهاي سالم را نيز مي­سوزاند، ضايع مي­کند و باعث تخريب آنها مي­شود.

Radiation while destroying cancer cells also burns, scars and damages healthy cells, tissues and organs.

8- درمان اوليه با شيمي درماني و پرتو درماني غالبا اندازه تومور را کاهش مي دهد. بااينوصف شيمي درماني و پرتودرماني درازمدت به نابودي بيشتر تومور منتج نمي شود.

Initial treatment with chemotherapy and radiation will often reduce tumor size. However prolonged use of chemotherapy and radiation do not result in more tumor destruction.

9- زمانيکه بدن تحت تاثير مسمو ميت ناشي از شيمي درماني و پرتودرماني قرار مي­گيرد سيستم ايمني در معرض خطر و نابودي واقع مي­شود بنابراين شخص ممکن است مقاومت خود را در برابر انواع مختلف عفونتها و پيچيدگيهاي ناشي از آن از دست بدهد.

When the body has too much toxic burden from chemotherapy and radiation the immune system is either compromised or destroyed, hence the person can succumb to various kinds of infections and complications.

10- شيمي درماني و پرتو درماني مي تواند باعث جهش ژنتيکي سلولهاي سرطاني گردد و مقاوم و پايدار شود ونابود کردن آن مشکل خواهد شد جراحي مي تواند باعث گسترش سلول هاي سرطاني به ديگر نقاط بدن شود.

Chemotherapy and radiation can cause cancer cells to mutate and become resistant and difficult to destroy. Surgery can also cause cancer cells to spread to other sites.

11- يک راه موثر مبارزه با سرطان غذا نرساندن به سلولهاي سرطاني است. عدم رساندن مواد غذايي مورد نياز سلول براي جلوگيري از افزايش و چند برابر شدن تعداد سلولها است.

An effective way to battle cancer is to starve the cancer cells by not feeding it with the foods it needs to multiply.

سلولهاي سرطاني از چه موادي تغذيه مي شوند؟

الف- قند تغذيه­کننده سرطان است. با قطع مصرف قند يک عامل مهم تامين غذا براي سلولهاي سرطاني قطع مي­شود. جانشينهاي قند نظير NutraSweet ، Equal، Spoonful و غيره با Aspartame ساخته مي­شود و زيان­آور است. يک جانشين طبيعي بهتر عسل مانوکا يا ملاس ناشي از قندسازي است ليکن مقدار مصرف آن بايد بسيار اندک باشد. نمک سفره داراي افزودني شيميايي است که رنگ آنرا سفيد کند.. جانشين بهتر نمک سفره نمک حاصل از آب دريا و يا Brag’s aminos است.

a. Sugar is a cancer-feeder. By cutting off sugar it cuts off one important food supply to the cancer cells. Sugar substitutes like NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, etc are made with Aspartame and it is harmful. A better natural substitute would be Manuka honey or molasses but only in very small amounts. Table salt has a chemical added to make it white in colour. Better alternative is Bragg’s aminos or sea salt.

ب- شير باعث مي­شود که بدن بخصوص در سيستم گوارش (معده و روده ها ) مخاط درست کند. سرطان از مخاط تغذيه مي­کند. با قطع مصرف شير و جانشين کردن آن با شير سويا سلولهاي سرطاني در برابر بي تغذيگي قرار مي­گيرند.

b. Milk causes the body to produce mucus, especially in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer feeds on mucus. By cutting off milk and substituting with unsweetened soy milk, cancer cells are being starved.

پ – سلولهاي سرطاني در محيط اسيدي مقاوم و پايدار مي شوند. رژيم مبتني بر گوشت قرمز اسيدي مي شود و بهترين آنست که ماهي خورده شود و بجاي مصرف گوشت گاو و خوک مقدارکمي گوشت جوجه مرجح است. گوشت قرمز همچنين محتوي آنتي بيوتيک هاي دامي ، هرمون هاي رشد و انگل است که تماما بخصوص براي اشخاص مبتلا به سرطان آسيب رسان است.

c. Cancer cells thrive in an acid environment. A meat-based diet is acidic and it is best to eat fish, and a little chicken rather than beef or pork. Meat also contains livestock antibiotics, growth hormones and parasites, which are all harmful, especially to people with cancer.

ت – رژيم با 80% سبزيجات تازه و آب ميوه و بنشن ، دانه هاي نباتي ، آجيل ها و مقداري ميوه بدن را در محيط قليايي قرار مي دهد. ازغذاهاي پخته شده شامل بنشن ،حدود 20% مي تواند به بدن برسد. آنزيم هاي زنده در آب سبزيجات تازه به آساني جذب مي شود و ظرف 15 دقيقه به سطوح سلولي مي رسد تا سلولهاي سالم را رشد کافي دهد و تقويت کند. براي بدست آوردن آنزيم هاي زنده بمنظور ساختن سلول هاي سالم کوشش کنيد آب سبزيجات تازه ( بسياري از سبزيجات از جمله جوانه لوبيا ) مصرف کنيد و دو تا سه مرتبه در روز مقداري سبزيجات خام بخوريد. آنزيم ها در حرارت 104 درجه فارنهايت (يا 40 درجه سانتيگراد) ازبين مي روند.

d. A diet made of 80% fresh vegetables and juice, whole grains, seeds, nuts and a little fruits help put the body into an alkaline environment. About 20% can be from cooked food including beans. Fresh vegetable juices provide live enzymes that are easily absorbed and reach down to cellular levels within 15 minutes t o nourish and enhance growth of healthy cells. To obtain live enzymes for building healthy cells try and drink fresh vegetable juice (most vegetables including bean sprouts) and eat some raw vegetables 2 or 3 times a day. Enzymes are destroyed at temperatures of 104 degrees F (40 degrees C(

ت- از خوردن قهوه ، چاي وشکلات که داراي کافئين زياد است پرهيز کنيد. چاي سبز جانشيني بهتر و داراي خواص ضد سرطان است. بهترين نوشيدني آب است. براي جلوگيري از ورود توکسين هاي معروف(مواد سمي ) و فلزات سنگين در آبهاي لوله کشي به بدن ، مصرف آب تصفيه شده يا فيلتر شده مناسب است . از خوردن آبهاي تقطير شده پرهيز کنيد.

e. Avoid coffee, tea, and chocolate, which have high caffeine. Green tea is a better alternative and has cancer-fighting properties. Water-best to drink purified water, or filtered, to avoid known toxins and heavy metals in tap water. Distilled water is acidic, avoid it.

12- هضم پروتئين گوشت قرمز سخت است و نياز به مقدار زيادي آنزيم گوارشي دارد. گوشت هضم نشده که در روده ها باقي بماند فاسد مي شود و مسموميت ايجاد مي کند.

Meat protein is difficult to digest and requires a lot of digestive enzymes. Undigested meat remaining in the intestines become putrefied and leads to more toxic buildup.

13- ديواره­هاي سلول سرطاني داراي پوشش پروتئين خشن است. با صرفنظر کردن از خوردن گوشت يا کمتر خوردن آن آنزيم بيشتري براي حمله به ديواره هاي پروتئيني سلول سرطان آزاد مي شود و به بدن امکان مي دهد سلول هاي سرطاني را از بين ببرد.

Cancer cell walls have a tough protein covering. By refraining from or eating less meat it frees more enzymes to attack the protein walls of cancer cells and allows the body’s killer cells to destroy the cancer cells.

14- بعضي مکملها: IP6, Flor-ssence, Essiac, anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, EFAs etc سيستم ايمني را بهبود مي­بخشند تا سلولهاي مبارزه­کننده و کشنده خود بدن را براي از بين بردن سلول سرطاني تقويت کنند. مکملهاي ديگرنظير ويتامين اي (E) توان برنامه­ريزي کشتن سلول يعني روش معمولي خلاصي يافتن از سلولهاي آسيب ديده، غير ضروري و غير لازم بدن را دارند.

Some supplements build up the immune system (IP6, Flor-ssence, Essiac, anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, EFAs etc.) to enable the body’s own killer cells to destroy cancer cells. Other supplements like vitamin E are known to cause apoptosis, or programmed cell death, the body’s normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells.

15- سرطان بيماري جسم و روح و روان است. داشتن روحيه مثبت و پيکار جو به شخص مبارزه کننده با سرطان کمک مي کند که به بقاي خود ادامه دهد. خشم و عدم بخشش و تند خويي بدن را در برابر محيط پر تنش وترشرويي قرار مي دهد. بياموزيد که روحيه اي توام با عشق و بخشندگي داشته باشيد. بياموزيد که همواره حالت آرامش و دلي آرام داشته باشيد و از زندگي لذت ببريد.

Cancer is a disease of the mind, body, and spirit. A proactive and positive spirit will help the cancer warrior be a survivor. Anger, un-forgiveness and bitterness put the body into a stressful and acidic environment. Learn to have a loving and forgiving spirit. Learn to relax and enjoy life.

16- سلولهاي سرطاني در محيط حاوي اکسيژن توان ماندن ندارند. ورزش روزانه وتنفس عميق باعث مي­شود که اکسيژن به لايه­هاي سلولي برسد. اکسيژن درماني روش ديگري براي از بين بردن سلول هاي سرطاني است…

Cancer cells cannot thrive in an oxygenated environment. Exercising daily, and deep breathing help to get more oxygen down to the cellular level.. Oxygen therapy is another means employed to destroy cancer cells.

Facts about Women


Population: The world’s population tripled from 1950 to 2010 and is now nearly 7 billion. There are 57 million more men than women, but in most countries there are more women than men.

Health: Women die more often from heart disease than men, and they constitute a majority of all HIV positive adults in Africa South of the Sahara in North Africa and the Middle East. 70% of the world’s poorest people who live on less than 15 million days are women.

Illiteracy: 2 / 3 of 774 million illiterate adults are women and this is the same number as 20 years ago. 72 million children do not attend school and 39 million (54%) are girls.

Professional life: Gender gap in employment is still high in all ages. Women are mainly employed in the service sector and part-time work is common in industrialized countries. Women also spend twice as much time on housework as men and it is estimated in both paid and unpaid work, women work longer hours than men, half of the country’s minimum standard for maternity leave and 2 of 5 meets the standards for financial compensation.

Power and political participation: There are 20 female heads of state in the world and only 23 countries have more than 30% female MPs. 13 of the 500 largest multinational companies have female executives.

Violence: Violence against women is a universal problem. Between 15 % and 71 % of women reported physical or sexual violence by a husband or partner. Many women said that their first sexual experience was not consensual. (24 % in rural Peru, 28 % in Tanzania, 30 % in rural Bangladesh, and 40 % in South Africa). Between 4 % and 12 % of women reported being physically abused during pregnancy.

Every year, about 5,000 women are murdered by family members in the name of honour each year worldwide. Trafficking of women and girls for forced labour and sex is widespread and often affects the most vulnerable.

Forced marriages and child marriages violate the human rights of women and girls, yet they are widely practiced in many countries in Asia, the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa.

Calories & Malnuitrition – Hand in Hand World Hunger

Numbers show that in 2010, there were around 1 billion people starving in the world making it 14% of the world’s population. Despite this it is produced enough food for everybody to eat as the world’s agriculture is producing 17% more calories each person today than they did 30 years ago even if the world’s population has increased with 60%. This is enough to feed every single person with 2500 calories daily. Unfortunately, many people don’t have the income to buy food or access to cultivated soil. Other factors that play in is natural disasters, wars and poverty.


Much of these calories end up in the landfills in the western countries. USA as an example, supplies its population with almost 4000 calories each day, more than what an average person needs daily. Their focus on light/diet products instead of healthy food has contributed to more morbid obesity in the world rather than food shortages and malnutrition.


Half of what we eat is enough for us, the other half makes the doctors salary.

Drugs that can kill you

The title of this post has been named so, because the people who are addicts or take drugs occasionally not only risks their lives but also destroys the trust & confidence of their family as well as challenge the very survival of the human race. So if any one who thinks he is doing it for fun & enjoyment then kindly have look at the details below:

Heroin / Brown Sugar / Opiates: brown sugar, sugar, and stuff. Street heroin is classified numerically from 1-4.  Heroin No.4 is often called “new China white”. Heroin-cocaine combinations are referred to as “cocktail” and “speedball”.

Source: Raw opium is the dried milky juice of the opium poppy seed capsules. The juice contains the following powerful drugs: morphine (about 8-14%), narcotine ( about 2-8%), papaverine (about 0.7-3%), and thebaine (about 0.2-1%). The best-known drugs made from raw opium are heroin and morphine. Heroin is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from morphine or opium by double acetylation. First made in 1874 and used as a very strong painkiller, it was eventually withdrawn from the market because of its habit-forming potential.

Effects: Opiatics depress the central nervous system, relieve pain, relax and induce sleep, produce respiratory depression and inhibit coughing. The body`s reaction to opiates varies, depending on a variety of factors including the person`s frequency of use.

Health Problems: Choking on one`s own vomit Circulatory collapse, Pulmonary edema, Respiratory paralysis Diarrhea, Fever, Goose flesh, Insomnia, Muscle pain Narrowing of the pupils, Nausea or vomiting Runny nose, Sweating, Tear flow, Yawning, Constipation, Inability to perform coitus, Irregular menstrual periods, Listlessness, Loss of libido, Loss of weight, Severe psychological and physical dependenc. Hepatitis and AIDS are also frequently transmitted through the use of dirty injection needles.

Hashish and Marijuana: Hash, pot, hemp, joint sticks, grass,weed, Mary Jane, shit, bhang, tea, Acapulco gold, charas, ganja, and kif.

Source: Sticky, brown powder which may have red, black and green shades Hemp flowers are resinous and sticky. When the flowers are dried and have undergone an extraction process, they produce a brownish, slightly sticky powder which has the characteristic odor of hashish. The powder is often compressed into blocks. The origin of the hashish can be easily determined. Blackish hashish comes from Nepal and Afghanistan, dark hashish from Pakistan, brown hashish from Morocco, red hashish from Lebanon, and greenish/hay-colored hashish from Turkey.

Effects: Mild euphoria, a feeling of contentment

Health Problems: Agitation, Cardiovascular effects (rapid beating of the heart, changes in blood pressure), Changes in sensory perception , Conjunctivitis, Dilated pupils, Drowsiness, Irritation , Listlessness, Nausea, Psychological dependence, Self-neglect, Risk of personality changes, Loss of contact with reality. Chromosomal damage, Impotence, Temporary sterility, Development of breasts in men , Miscarriage in women, Distruption of DNA synthesis and the immune defense system in cells leading to the death of some cells. Damage to the lungs and airways, Lasting damage to the brain, since traces of THC remain there.

Cocaine and Crack: coke,snow, flake, nose candy, white lady, Bolivian rock, toot, blow, and Mother of Pearl. Ice, ice or rock(crack)

Source: Leaves of the coca plant. Cocaine hydrochloride (cocaine HCL, the hydrochloride salt of cocaine) is produced from the leaves of the coca plant. Prime cocaine is usually 70-85% pure, while street cocaine is usually less than 25% pure. Appearance: Fine white powder Street cocaine tends to become sticky and form clumps.It has a bitter state and acts as a topical anesthetic if applied to the oral mucous membrane for an extended period of time. Crack: Small, beige rocks. The drug usually appears as beige tablets about 2 cm in diameter, which are smooth on one side and have a notch on the other side. These tablets are not taken orally but are crushed and smoked.

Effects: Ability to handle higher levels of stress, Euphoria, Heightened  awareness, Hyperactivity, Increased psychic energy, Increased self confidence, Sexual stimulation. Short-term increase in performance, Dilated pupils. Elevated body temperature, Increased blood pressure, Increased heart rate, Rapid breathing, Sleeplessness, Irritability, Depression, Chronic fatigue, Inability to concentrate, Relationship problems, Paranoia, Headaches, Nosebleeds, Decreased ability to perform work.

Health Problems: Anxiety, Destruction of the nasal membrane (if inhaled). Heightened irritability, Nausea, Paranoia, Psychoses, Restlessness, Sleeplessness, Weight loss.

Amphetamines: capilots, bumble bees, Benzedrine, Dexedrine, footballs, biphetamine, Speed, uppers, ups, hearts, black beauties, pep pills.

Source: Amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives are chemical substances based on phenylethylamines. They are synthetic psychostimulants and appetite suppressants.

Effects & Health Problems: Discomfort, Disorientation, Elevated blood pressure, Elevated heart rate, High body, Temperature, Irritation, Nervousness, Optical and acoustic hallucinations, Cerebral hemorrhage, Frequent bouts of dysphoria, Heart and circulatory failure, Neurotoxicity, Paranoid psychoses, Stroke. Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases if injected.

Metamphetamines: Speed, meth, crank, crystal, ice, fire, croak, crypto, white cross, glass. “Ice” is the street name for the smokeable form. Some users avoid sleep 3 to 15 days.

Effects & Health Problems: Addiction, irritability, aggression, hypothermia, stroke, paranoia, psychosis, convulsions, heart and blood vessel toxicity, hallucinations, arrhythmia, formication (the sensation of insects creeping on or under your skin).

Ecstasy: XTC, Adam, MDMA. Ecstasy is popular at all-night underground parties (called raves) and is the most common designer drug.

Effects & Health Problems: Psychiatric disturbances, including panic, anxiety, depression, and paranoia. Muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, sweating, increased heart rate, tremors, hallucinations, fainting, chills, sleep problems, and reduced appetite.

Ritalin: Speed, west coast

Effects  & Health Problems: Loss of appetite, fevers, convulsions, and severe headaches. Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infections. Paranoia, hallucinations, excessive repetition of movements and meaningless tasks, tremors, muscle twitching.

PCP: Angel dust, ozone, rocket fuel, peace pill, elephant tranquilizer, dust. Marijuana joints can be dipped into PCP without the smoker’s knowledge.

Effect & Health Problem: Hallucinations. Out-of-body experiences, impaired motor coordination, inability to feel physical pain, respiratory attack, disorientation, fear, panic, aggressive behavior. Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases if injected. Death.

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethyl amide): Acid, microdot, tabs, doses, trip s, hits, sugar cubes. LSD is the most common  hallucinogen. LSD tabs are often decorated with colorful designs or cartoon characters.

Effects & Health Problems: Elevated body temperature and blood pressure, suppressed appetite, sleeplessness, tremors, chronic recurring hallucinations.


Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.

There are three major types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Genetics, viruses, and autoimmune problems may play a role.
  • Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are increasingly being diagnosed with this disease. The pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to increasing obesity and failure to exercise.
  • Gestational diabetes is high blood glucose that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. Women who have gestational diabetes are at high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life.

Symptoms of High blood levels of glucose can cause several problems, including: Blurry vision, Excessive thirst, Fatigue, Frequent urination, Hunger, Weight loss

However, because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar experience no symptoms at all.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes: Fatigue, Increased thirst, increased urination, Nausea, Vomiting, Weight loss in spite of increased appetite

Patients with type 1 diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time. The condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes: Blurred vision, Fatigue, Increased appetite, increased thirst, and increased urination.

WHAT TO EAT: You should work closely with your health care provider to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet. A registered dietician can help you plan your dietary needs. People with type 1 diabetes should eat at about the same times each day and try to be consistent with the types of food they choose. This helps to prevent blood sugar from becoming extremely high or low. People with type 2 diabetes should follow a well-balanced and low-fat diet.

EXERCISE: Regular exercise is especially important for people with diabetes. It helps with blood sugar control, weight loss, and high blood pressure. People with diabetes who exercise are less likely to experience a heart attack or stroke than those who do not exercise regularly. You may need to change your diet or medication dose if you change your exercise intensity or duration to keep blood sugar levels from going too high or low.

FOOT CARE: People with diabetes are more likely to have foot problems. Diabetes can damage blood vessels and nerves and decrease the body’s ability to fight infection. You may not notice a foot injury until an infection develops. Death of skin and other tissue can occur. If left untreated, the affected foot may need to be amputated. Diabetes is the most common condition leading to amputations. To prevent injury to the feet, check and care for your feet every day.


Maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.

Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes.

There is no effective screening test for type 1 diabetes in people who don’t have symptoms.

Screening for type 2 diabetes in people with no symptoms is recommended for:

  • Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes starting at age 10 and repeating every   2 years
  • Overweight adults (BMI greater than 25) who have other risk factors
  • Adults over 45, repeated every 3 years

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