Archive for the ‘Nature’ Category
Samarinda, East Kalimantan
December 20, 2011
Marsih, An employee of Resort City Police Samarinda, East Kalimantan, poured by gasoline and burned her own husband. She suffered burns up to 60 percent. The act was done in front of the child victim. It was done by Sumantri because he is reluctant to divorce from his wife. Not only Marsih,Sumantri also affected by a bolt of fire and suffered 40 percent burns. Both were treated at the Islamic Hospital Samarinda. Currently the police are still asking the details number of witnesses from the family. Perpetrator closely guarded for fear of escape.
Based on Act No. 23 of 2004 on the Elimination of Domestic Violence Law of Indonesia; domestic violence is any action against a person, especially women, which result in misery or suffering physical, sexual, psychological, and / or negligence of household including threat to commit acts, coercion, or deprivation of liberty against the law within the domestic sphere.
Elimination of Domestic Violence Law was born through a long struggle for about seven years conducted the women’s movement activists of the share element. In Indonesia, a formal legally, these provisions come into force since 2004. The mission of this Act is an effort, endeavor for the elimination of domestic violence. With this provision, means the state could attempt to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence, prosecution of domestic violence and protect victims of domestic violence.
Something that previously could not happen, because it is considered as an internal matter of one’s family. The reason is expressly said that, the action physical violence, psychological, sexual, and neglect of household (economic abandonment) done within the domestic sphere is a crime. These actions may be common and can occur between the husband to his wife and vice versa, or parents against their children. As legislation that requires special arrangements, in addition to criminal sanctions contained setting, this law also regulates the procedural law, the obligation of the state in providing immediate protection to victims who report. Thus, it can be said that this provision is an important legal breakthrough for efforts to uphold human rights, especially protection against those who have been harmed in a family or household order.
In numbers, wives who are victims of domestic violence was 96 percent, of the total 136 thousand more cases of violence in personal relationships. The pattern is dominated by domestic violence sexual and psychological violence. While physical violence is smaller in number under the economic violence. Violence against women also occurs during courtship, violence by ex-husband or ex-boyfriend, and against domestic workers. Violence against women as whole rise 263 percent to 143.586 cases during 2009 (January to December).
Causes of domestic violence
In Indonesia, domestic violence is difficult to resolve, it is because many people who do not know that their actions or action that they are received from their partner is included in domestic violence, and perpetrators may also feel that his actions were protected by the prevailing norms in society, that is not polite when intervene in the household of others when there are fights (internal matter). This norm has indirectly led to the perpetrator feel protected from state laws when they are apply to domestic violence.
It also can cause by:
1) The public raising boys by growing confidence that the boys should be strong, brave and intolerant.
2) Men and women are not positioned equally in society.
3) Perceptions of violence in the household must be closed because it is a family problem and not a social problem.
4) an erroneous understanding of religious teachings about the rules educate wives, wives to their husbands obedience, respect for the position of her husband resulting in the perception that men should control women.
5) Culture that wife relies on her husband, especially economics.
6) Personality and psychological conditions of husband who is not stable.
7) Have experienced violence in childhood.
8) Culture that men are considered superior and women inferior.
9) Doing imitation, especially the boys who live with parents who often do violence to his mother or himself.
Effort to recover the victims on domestic violence
Elimination of Domestic Violence Law is the first regulation governing the rights of victims. Rights of victims of domestic violence in the Elimination of Domestic Violence Law in Article 10 which include the following:
1. protection of the family, police, prosecutors, courts, advocates, social institutions, or any other party either temporarily or based on the determination of a court protection order;
2. Health services in accordance with medical needs;
3. Special handling related to the confidentiality of the victim;
4. Assistance by social workers and legal assistance at every level of the examination process in accordance with the provisions of legislation; and
5. Spiritual guidance services.
Efforts to prevent domestic violence are a mutual obligation between the government and society. This corresponds to a locus of domestic violence in the private sphere, so the government cannot simply go in and monitor the household directly. And so we need community involvement in monitoring and preventing the occurrence of domestic violence in the neighborhood. The obligation of this community accommodated in articles 14 and 15 of Elimination of Domestic Violence Law. Even in chapter 15 are detailed on duty “every person who heard, saw, or know the occurrence of domestic violence shall make efforts in accordance with the limit of his ability to a) prevent the continuation of crime; b) provide protection to victims; c) to provide relief emergency; and d) assist the application process protection setting.
Article 44 of Law Number 23 Year 2004 on domestic violence.
- Anyone committing acts of violence, physical within the domestic sphere as referred to in Article 5 letter a shall be punished with imprisonment of 5 (five) years or a maximum fine of Rp 15,000,000.00 (fifteen million rupiahs).
- In the event that acts as referred to in paragraph (1) resulted in the victim had fallen ill or serious injury, shall be punished with imprisonment of 10 (ten) years or a fine of not more Rp30.000.000, 00 (thirty million rupiahs).
- In the event that acts as referred to in paragraph (2) resulted in the death of the victim, shall be punished with imprisonment of 15 (fifteen) years or a maximum fine of Rp 45,000,000.00 (forty five million rupiahs).
It not only happens in Indonesia but even in developed and advance countries like Australia recently Rajini Narayan who killed her husband by burning first his penis and then him completely. Have a look at the full story what had gone between them and male who think himself always superior and powerful to woman. However it seems like slowly but gradually women are claiming their rights which they could have claimed much earlier.
A woman who burned her husband to death after “snapping momentarily” has become the third battered wife in seven years to avoid jail for manslaughter in Australian court history.
The Supreme Court today suspended Rajini Narayan’s six-year sentence for killing her cheating husband, Satish, in December 2008.
Justice John Sulan said the killing was due to “momentary” anger and “muddled” thinking, and that Narayan was truly remorseful for her actions.
“Although it is often said … that a suspended sentence is not a sentence at all, it’s a real sentence and can be brought into effect if there is a failure to comply with specified conditions,” he said.
“It is wrong to regard suspended sentences as letting an offender walk free as if he or she has not been punished.
“It seems (Narayan) has suffered a great deal already.”
Narayan, who sat with her back to the public gallery for much of the hearing, fought back tears as the sentence was announced.
Her eldest daughter ran to the front of the court room to embrace and kiss her mother.
Narayan, 46, is the third woman in seven years to avoid an immediate jail term for manslaughter.
In 2004, Riverland woman Gwenda Elaine Savcic received a suspended three-year term for killing her husband, Mark.
Savcic fatally stabbed her husband with a samurai sword after silently enduring 19 years of abuse at his hands.
Justice Ted Mullighan ruled the stabbing – the first time Savcic had ever stood up to her husband – was an act of “excessive self-defence”.
In 2009, Noreen Jessamine Weetra received a suspended five-year term for killing her partner, Ross Owen Calyun.
Police had been called to the couple’s home 10 times in three years before Weetra struck back, stabbing Calyun in the heart in front of her children.
Justice Margaret Nyland dubbed her actions “rare and exceptional”, and therefore deserving of a “merciful approach” in sentencing.
Narayan stood trial in the Supreme Court for murder last year.
Prosecutors had alleged she deliberately set her husband, Satish, alight in December 2008 after confronting him about his affair.
Narayan denied this, saying her intention was to “circumcise and purify” her husband who had physically and verbally abused her for 22 years.
She said she wanted to “burn a dot on his penis” with petrol and an “angel candle” she had been given by a fortune teller so that he would not leave her for the other woman.
She compared her “bizarre” idea to the Hindu love story of Lord Ram, who proved the purity of his wife, Sita, with fire after rescuing her from a demon king.
“It would be like circumcision, or just like he placed that red dot on my forehead at the wedding,” she said at trial.
“It was like I had all the powers of the goddess to save my husband, my lord … it did not occur to me that it was going to be dangerous.”
Narayan admitted losing control and throwing the flame and accelerant onto Satish when he called her a “fat bitch”.
Jurors accepted her version of events, acquitting her of murder and finding her guilty of the lesser charge of manslaughter.
In sentencing today, Justice Sulan said Narayan had “deified” her husband and was “shattered” by his betrayal.
He said there was “no doubt” her thinking at the time was “unrealistic, muddled and illogical”.
“For the first time in your life you had confronted your husband, had found the courage to be assertive to the person who had mistreated you for 20 years,” he said.
“His response was to treat you with disdain, dismiss you and turn his back to you (and) you snapped.”
Justice Sulan further ordered Narayan be under Correctional Services supervision for two years, and undertake psychological counseling as ordered.
As woman is becoming more aware and man are becoming more brutal and unforgiving the silence of her soul has now reached at the point of final eruption where now the hidden dark side of once this magnificent human being has now showing her dark side. Man and Woman are just like two sides of one coin and have remained till date but neither of them has ever appreciated or complemented each other. The narrow mind set and venerable behavior of man develops a quality of a deep anger and an uncompromising behavior whereas fear of losing and possessiveness have made woman more reserve and of conservative behavior but as the world becomes more aware of its rights and responsibilities woman too are becoming more open minded and are being more aggressive towards their aims and their self being. This has evolved new twisted positions in the un-balanced relations of opposite genders.
These cases are the new signs of beginning of a new era where woman shares the power in this male dominant world.
Warning: This article contains some disturbing content and images. Viewers discretion is advised.
From centuries human civilizations have practiced cannibalism – a practice which not only haunts a week hearts but it spreads a dangerous culture which endangers the entire survival of human existence. Almost every tribal culture with few exceptions nurtured and has enjoyed exotic flavors’ of the great human flesh but those who do are unaware that the cuisine they ate is toxic, is full of all those diseases which the person diluting in their intestines will affect their own. Cannibal culture goes in two ways one by killing a person and feasting on him whereas other follows the dead to be eaten by his relatives. The former called homicidal cannibalism while later called as necro-cannibalism. Though the world has come ages and has made strides in science and civilization however the situation in many parts of the world still remains the same.
There are many countries where even now to this date cannibalism is still not consider as sin and is being practiced in some or the other form either in the name of religion or culture or habit.
Tribes which are known to practice cannibalism across the world:
Tribes in Americas practiced cannibalism:
Akokisa – USA
The Akokisa, like the Atakapa, practiced cannibalism, which may have been connected to their religious beliefs. Cannibalistic feasts were described by Simars de Bellisle, who observed them firsthand when Akokisa people captured him when his ship wrecked was Frenchman (1695-1763). His diary was the first hand account of these natives practicing homicidal cannibalism.
The first European contact with the Atakapa may have been in 1528 by survivors of the Spanish Pánfilo de Narváez expedition. The name Atakapa is a Choctaw name meaning “people eater” (hattak ‘person’, apa ‘to eat’), a reference to the practice of ritual cannibalism. The Gulf coast peoples practiced this on their enemies.
A French explorer, Francois Simars de Bellisle, lived among the Atakapa from 1719 to 1721. He described Atakapa cannibalistic feasts which he observed firsthand. The practice of cannibalism likely had a religious, ritualistic basis.
The French historian Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, lived in Louisiana, from 1718 to 1734, a total of 16 years. He wrote:
Along the west coast, not far from the sea, inhabit the nation called Atacapas [sic], that is, Man-Eaters, being so called by the other nations on account of their detestable custom of eating their enemies, or such as they believe to be their enemies. In the vast country there are no other cannibals to be met with besides the Atacapas; and since the French have gone among them, they have raised in them so great an horror of that abominable practice of devouring creatures of their own species, that they have promised to leave it off: and, accordingly, for a long time past we have heard of no such barbarity among them. —Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz
Harakmbut – Peru
The Harakmbut are an indigenous tribe living in the Peruvian Amazon Tobias Schneebaum an American artist, anthropologist, and AIDS activist has witnessed cannibalism ritual of Harakmbut tribe. Which was mentioned as about him “After hitch-hiking from New York to Peru, he lived with the Harakmbut people for seven months, where he slept with his male subjects and claimed to have joined the tribe in cannibalism on one occasion”.
The Wari also practiced cannibalism, specifically mortuary cannibalism. This is a form of endo-cannibalism, or the consumption of members of one’s own society. This was done as a form of utmost respect to those who have passed.
Tribes in Europe practiced cannibalism
Androphagi – Russia
Androphagi (Greek: for “man-eaters) was ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (according to Herodotus), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnepr and Don. These people may have assisted the Scythians when King Darius the Great led a Persian invasion into what is now Southern Russia to punish the Scythians for their raids into the Achaemenid Empire.
The Gutasaga tells of the blóts on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea: Before this time, and a long time thereafter, they believed in groves and barrows, sanctuaries, and sacred enclosures and in the pagan gods. They sacrificed (for?) their sons, daughters and cattle, and practiced blóts with food and drink. This they did due to their superstition. The whole country (the althing) had the largest blót with sacrifice of people, otherwise everything had its blót and smaller things had smaller blóts with cattle, food and drinks. They were called food-, or cooking-brethren, because they prepared the meals together.
Tribes in Asia practiced cannibalism
Until the 1950s, their remote and harsh location isolated the Asmat from other peoples. It was not until the mid-20th century that they came into regular contact with outsiders. Initially, the Asmat had a reputation as headhunters and cannibals, and were left undisturbed.
In the 1950s the neurological disease Kuru was discovered in the South Fore. The local tradition of ritual cannibalism of their dead had led to an epidemic, with approximately 1000 deaths from 1957 to 1960. Upon the death of an individual, the maternal kin were responsible for the dismemberment of the corpse. The women would remove the arms and feet, strip the limbs of muscle, remove the brain and cut open the chest in order to remove internal organs.
Shirley Lindenbaum, one of the early kuru researchers, states that kuru victims were highly regarded as sources of food, because the layer of fat on victims who died quickly resembled pork. Women also were known to feed morsels – such as human brain and various parts of organs – to their children and the elderly.
It is currently believed that kuru was transmitted among the South Fore through participation in such cannibalism, although opportunistic infection through wounds when removing infectious tissue from the corpse can be assumed to be another cause, as not all cases can be explained by ingestion of infectious tissue.
Though the Fore would not eat those who had apparently died of disease, and so did not so easily catch other diseases via cannibalism, they believed that kuru was a mental affliction caused by a curse rather than a physical disease.
The kuru epidemic reached its height in the 1960s, having recorded over 1,100 deaths of the South Fore from kuru between 1957 and 1968. The vast majority of victims among the South Fore were women. In fact, eight times more women than men contracted the disease. It later affected small children and the elderly at a high rate as well.
Lindenbaum and Vincent Zigas worked among the South Fore in New Guinea trying to identify and catalog the symptoms and possible behavior causing the disease. Daniel Carleton Gajdusek also traveled there in 1957, to study disease patterns in indigenous and isolated populations.Lindenbaum, Zigas, and Gajdusek were all crucial to explaining the specifics of kuru to the rest of the world.
Although the prohibition of cannibalism in the 1950s led to the steady decline of the epidemic, it has lingered into the present century by an incubation period that can exceed 50 years.
Issedones – Central Asian countries
The Byzantine scholiast John Tzetzes, who cites the Issedones generally “in Scythia” present day Central Asian Region, quotes some lines to the effect that the Issedones “exult in long flowing hair” and mentions the one-eyed men to the north. According to Herodotus, the Issedones practiced ritual cannibalism of their elderly males, followed by a ritual feast at which the deceased patriarch’s family ate his flesh, gilded his skull, and placed it in a position of honor much like a cult image.
The archeologists E. M. Murphy and J. P. Mallory of the Queen’s University of Belfast, have argued (Antiquity, 74 (2000):388-94) that Herodotus was mistaken in his interpretation of what he imagined to be cannibalism. Recently-excavated sites in southern Siberia, such as the large cemetery at Aymyrlyg in Tuva containing more than 1,000 burials of the Scythian period, have revealed accumulations of bones often arranged in anatomical order. This indicates burials of semi-decomposed corpses or defleshed skeletons, sometimes associated with leather bags or cloth sacks. Marks on some bones show cut-marks of a nature indicative of defleshing, but most appear to suggest disarticulation of adult skeletons. Murphy and Mallory suggest that, since the Issedones were nomads living with cattle herds, they moved up the mountains in summer, but they wanted their dead to be buried at their winter camp; defleshing and dismemberment of the people who died in summer would have been more hygienic than allowing the corpses to decompose naturally in the summer heat. Burial of the dismembered remains would have taken place in fall after returning to winter camp, but before the ground was frozen completely. Such procedures of defleshing and dismemberment may have been mistaken for evidence of cannibalism by foreign onlookers.
Murphy and Mallory do not exclude the possibility that the flesh removed from the bodies was consumed. Archeologically these activities remain invisible. But they point out that elsewhere, Herodotus names another tribe (Androphagi) as the only group to eat human flesh.
On the other hand, Dr. Timothy Taylor points out:
- 1. Herodotus reports that the so-called “Androphagoi” are the “only” people in the region to practice cannibalism. However, a distinction should be drawn between “aggressive gustatory cannibalism” (i.e., hunting humans for food) and the ritualized, reverential practices reported among the Issedones and Massagetae.
- 2. Scythian-type peoples were renowned embalmers and presumably would have no need for funerary defleshing to delay decomposition of the corpse.
- 3. Herodotus specifically describes the removal of the meat and mixing it with other foodstuffs to make a funerary stew.
Dr. Taylor concludes: “Inferring reverential funerary cannibalism in this case is thus the most academically cautious approach”.
The Kombai are known to have practiced cannibalism in the past, as part of their culture. The Kombai also believe in evil spirits called Suangi. Suangis are said to eat the blood and/or internal organs of their victims and then stuff the bodies with leaves and grass. They are also believed to devour the person’s soul. After being attacked, the victim is then said to return home where they seem to have fallen mysteriously ill. If a victim is able to name the Suangi that has attacked him, they are often killed and eaten by the victim’s family in the belief that it will free the person’s spirit. The Kombai also believe in Khakhua-Kumu, evil men who consume the souls of their victims, and must be killed or eaten in return.
Korowai tribe in Papua, Indonesia is known as the tribes that still remaining in the world and performs cannibalism until now. They usually eat his tribe member suspected of being witches. Usually they eat while still in a state of his brain warm. Their residence, usually located above the tall tree is useful to protect from their enemies.
Marind-anim are people living in South New Guinea, in the past, they were famed because of headhunting. This was rooted in their belief system and linked to the name-giving of the newborn. The skull was believed to contain a mana-like force. Headhunting was not motivated primarily by cannibalism, but the already killed person’s flesh was consumed.
Massagetae – Uzbekistan
According to Herodotus: Each man has but one wife, yet all the wives are held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae and not of the Scythians, as the Greeks wrongly say. Human life does not come to its natural close with this people; but when a man grows very old, all his kinsfolk collect together and offer him up in sacrifice; offering at the same time some cattle also. After the sacrifice they boil the flesh and feast on it; and those who thus end their days are reckoned the happiest. If a man dies of disease they do not eat him, but bury him in the ground, bewailing his ill-fortune that he did not come to be sacrificed.
The Sawi are a tribal people of Western New Guinea, Indonesia. They were known to be cannibalistic headhunters as recently as the 1950s.
Tribes in Africa practiced cannibalism
Beti-Pahuin – Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe
The Beti-Pahuin’s exact origins are unclear. At one point, they were thought to have migrated into the territory of present-day Cameroon from the Azande area of Sudan, but the current belief is that they originated in the forests south of the Sanaga River, not far from their current territory. During this process, the migrants encountered other ethnic groups. The invaders were militarily superior, however, and (possibly aided by a reputation for cannibalism), they were able to absorb and “Pahuinise” most of the indigenous groups they encountered. Those peoples who refused or resisted assimilation had no choice but to flee.
Tribes in Oceania practiced cannibalism
Māori – New Zealand
Maori in New Zealand is a tribe of cannibals who have documented very well. Cannibalism had been a part of Maori culture, and they never stop to eat their enemies. When the British ship, the Boyd, anchored and the crew killed the son of the head of the Maori, the Maori warrior take revenge by killing and eating 66 crew of the ship. This event is finally known as the “body massacre.”
Countries where cannibalism is being followed and is practiced in this 21st century:
Most of the countries to this exclusive and distinct club include some of the most prospering and largely underdeveloped ones where even today as well this heinous and inhuman practice is contributing to their platter. These countries are mostly in continents of Africa and Asia with have two exceptions of two from Europeans: they are: India, China, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Guinea, Liberia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Nigeria, Rwanda, Ukraine, Germany, Polynesia, Melanesia, Australia. In these countries there are lots of similarities as well as dissimilarities. One can get a complete detail content of the reasons why in these countries it is still practiced and people still love to live their cannibal values.
Cannibalism in India has existed from thousands of centuries or one can say since times unknown. Here in India there are three groups which practice this act.
Aghoris – This is sect of religious Hindu splinter holy men who believe that if they eat human meat they will get immortality. They also believe that eating human flesh prevents ageing. One can find them near cremation grounds or near banks of river Ganges where they grab the floating dead bodies and enjoy their feast. They drink from human skulls and always carry bones and skulls with them.
Naga – This is a warrior tribe found in the North Eastern state of India – Nagaland. They still practice necro-cannibalism where the dead members are eaten by his relatives or family within the close quarters of their four walls. Earlier this tribe has also practiced homicide cannibalism but due to the abolition of tribal laws and advanced transformation of their life styles in the modern India they have discontinued this practice as now their no tribal wars or any intrusions made by other communities to grab their ancestral lands which used to the norm before independence.
Hopi, Zuni and Peublo communities also practice some part of cannibalism while performing cremation rituals.
There are other tribal communities like Andaman’s, Manipuri, Mizo, Jaintya, Bodo, Garo, Khasi, Tripuri who on some or the other occasion sometimes practice this un-natural behavior of cannibalism. All these tribes are found in the Indian states of North East and Andaman – Nicobar Island Group.
This is the most bizarre and has most weird eating habits in the world. Here cannibalism is not an act but a platter or is a scientific form of an exclusive range of human cuisines. In some parts of China girls are sacrificed and eaten to please God and their ancestral spirits. These girls are mostly of early teenage and before they are slaughtered their hands and legs are tied first and their mouth sealed by the plastic tape. Being helpless in front of those werewolves’ they witness their own homicide. After slitting their throats their bodies are left in the open so that the remaining blood flows out of the body naturally. The blood during the slitting of the throat is collected in the deep vessel which will be later use for performing rituals. Their bodies hare hanged upside down and then the cannibals begin the process of skinning and cleaning of the internal organs.
Fetus soup is delicacy in China and it is liked by many people over there from decades. Many says that this new kind of cannibalistic culture of eating fetus or aborted babies was started due to the rigid and harsh one child policy which force couples to abort their babies or even abandon them premature sometimes. These babies are then become the main ingredient for soup which is liked by millions of Chinese.
Here are some relevant reports and stories about this bizarre world – We posted once an article about how the Japanese simulated eating a human body as a form of edgy entertainment. Well now there are reports that the Chinese have been eating infant babies in an attempt to improve their health and beauty.
The Next Magazine, a weekly publication from Hong Kong, is reporting that infant fetuses have become a popular health and beauty supplement in China. It is further reported that in Guangdong, the demand for gourmet body parts is so high, that they can even be purchased directly from the hospitals.
It is reported that during a banquet hosted by a Taiwanese businessman, a servant Ms Liu from Liaoning province on the mainland inadvertently revealed the habit of eating infants/fetuses in Liaoning province and her intention to return for the supplement due to health concerns. The Taiwanese women present were horrified.
Ms Liu also disclosed that even though people can afford the human parts there are still waiting lists and those with the right connections get the “highest quality” human parts, which translates to the more mature fetuses. A male fetus is considered the “prime” human part.
Ms Liu then escorted the reporter to a location where a fetus was being prepared. A woman was chopping up a male fetus and making soup from the placenta. During the process, the woman even tried to comfort everyone by saying, “Don’t be afraid, this is just the flesh of a higher animal.”
In fact, in China, reports about meals made from infant flesh have surfaced from time to time. A video is on the Internet for people to view. In the introduction, the Chinese claim that eating a human fetus is an art form.
On March 22, 2003, police in Bingyan, Guangxi Province seized 28 female babies smuggled in a truck from Yulin, Guangxi Province going to Houzhou in Anhui Province. The oldest baby was only three months old. The babies were packed three or four to a bag and many of them were near death.
On the morning of October 9, 2004, a person rifling through the garbage on the outskirts of Jiuquan city in the Suzhou region, found dismembered babies in a dumpster. There were two heads, two torsos, four arms, and six legs. According to the investigation, these corpses were no more than a week old and they had been dismembered after cooking.
Although China has laws that prohibit the eating of human fetus, the regime’s forced abortions to ensure the one child policy is strictly adhered to thereby creating many opportunities for these sorts of atrocities to occur.
A favorite tourist destination and a glittering hub of sex trade have seen its people being cannibal sometime to satisfy their bizarre of this taboo. In 2009 there was a case when Thai people of Sawang Pae Paisarn Foundation in the distant corner of this country killed a Nigerian and was eaten by them after cooking all his dissected body parts and was distributed among all those who have participated in this act of insane anthropophagi. However the truth is something else their pictures of removing flesh from body were a religious act which was performed by the members of this foundation and with the help of volunteers were intercepted with pictures of cooking lunch by some members at the same location. This ceremony in Thailand is called Lang Pa Cha which is performed when the cemetery gets filled up having no more space to accommodate dead bodies further. This ceremony is mostly held during the summer season from March – May. So, in order to ease out the cremation process in the already squeezed and of small sized cremation chamber they clear the entire flesh from the skeleton and dissect it followed by rituals. The remaining flesh also goes into cremation chamber but after cremating the cleaned skeletal. This is a Buddhist practice and is carried in almost all the Buddhist faith countries like China and other South Pacific countries and even Sri-Lanka.
This controversy was so heightened that letters were sent to the Thai Ambassador to Nigeria in Abuja and even to Barack Obama. Many protests were carried out by the furious African community and even African Union too protested. One can find read out the entire comments and conversation carried published in http://www.southernspeakers.net/2009/09/cannibalism-in-thailand.html in a statement and answer to this circulating controversy which had almost destroyed the diplomatic relations between the two nations was cleared by the Thai Embassy The Royal Thai Embassy in Abuja yesterday said the compact discs, magazines and other materials in circulation, alleging that some Thai nationals were eating human parts were false and should be discountenanced.
The embassy said in a statement that the images being circulated were taken at a ritual called, “Lang Pa Cha” or cleaning of the cemetery in Prachuab Khiri Khan Province between March and May.
The circulation of the materials, including calendars, CDs and magazines on the streets of Lagos and other cities, has unsettled many Nigerians who have relations in Thailand. This followed the impression that the blacks in the country were the targets of the cannibals.
But the Thai Embassy said the images were only manipulated to generate ill-feelings.
According to the statement, the ritual was usually carried out on dead bodies which were dug up to create more space for new deaths.
The statement reads in part: “When dug up, the bodies, which have not been claimed by any relatives will be cremated according to Buddhist rites. As their bones are cremated, their flesh has to be dissected before the cremation.”
“The embassy said the images circulated were that of volunteers assisting in the cremation.”
A Tribe called Yoruba is indulge in the human flesh trade and even there are reports of cannibalism in the Eastern Nigeria where enjoy having human meat. Body parts and its trade are booming in Nigeria because of high rate of superstition and demand by witch doctors. Bodies which are unclaimed or did not found any place in cemetery or left partly cremated contribute majority of the volume of this flourishing business. There are open markets where one can buy fresh or stored human meat and its body parts. Here are the details from which one could have an idea about its norms and existence Lagos – A Nigerian man has been arrested after he killed a woman and ate her stewed intestines in a bid to cure an abnormally persistent Attention, police said on Wednesday.
A spokesperson for Osun state police said 50-year-old Folorunso Olukotun had led officers to his victim’s disemboweled body in the bush near his home village in south-west Nigeria.
“According to the man’s story, his private organ always has an Attention and it doesn’t go down,” Oluwole Ayodeji said. “Someone advised him to kill a woman and eat her intestines.”
Olukotun ambushed his victim, a woman in her forties unknown to her attacker, on a path near her village. He attacked her with a machete, killed her, and took her intestines home, Ayodeji said.
‘He seems to have believed them’
“He cooked them like a sort of stew and ate them with pounded yam,” he said. “When the police arrived he was very open, we have his whole confession on tape and he has been remanded in custody.”
The spokesperson said that police believe that someone had jokingly suggested cannibalism as a cure for Olukotun’s problem, in the belief that he would never carry out such a killing.
“He seems to have believed them,” he said. Police could not say whether the Attention has now subsided. – Sapa-AFP
Directly an enemy was slain, his head – and sometimes his body, if the people were strongly cannibalistic – was taken to the village and a great dance given, either at once or after the skull has been cleaned of its flesh by boiling, or by being buried for a time in the ground. At the feast, every man-slayer of the village danced round, generally with a skull in one hand and his machete in the other. Sometimes the body of the enemy was brought in whole; sometimes it was cut in pieces in advance to facilitate transport. It was then boiled in native pots and shared out, occasionally among the man-slayer’s family and friends, but sometimes among all the people of the village, until it was wholly consumed. In some tribes it was forbidden for women and children to partake of human flesh; in others, for example among the Kalabari, the eldest sister of the hut was forced to taste it, however strongly she might protest.
Among the Abadja, the whole body of anyone slain was ordinarily taken back to the village and there consumed, though it was tabu to eat women or children. A man only divided his ‘kill’ among his own family. The body was cut up and cooked in pots; the fingers, palms of the hands, and toes were considered the best eating. Sometimes, if a family had been satisfied, part of the body would be dried and put away for later.
When an Nkanu warrior brought a head back, everyone who heard of the deed gave him a present, and much palm-wine was drunk. The trophy was boiled, and the flesh cut away. The skull was then taken out, accompanied with all the others in the village, and the flesh was then boiled and eaten.
Much cruelty was practiced among certain of these tribes. For example, the Bafum-Bansaw, who frequently tortured their prisoners before putting them to death? Palm-oil was boiled in a big pot, and then by means of a gourd enema it was pumped into the bowels and stomachs of the prisoners. This practice was said to make the bodies much more succulent than they would otherwise have been. The bodies were left until the palm-oil had permeated them, and then cut up and devoured.
P. A. Talbot, Southern Nigeria, Clarendon Press, 1926 (3 vols.)
Every moment, men, women and even children passed me. One would be carrying a human leg on his shoulder; another would be carrying the lungs or the heart of some unfortunate Kroo-boy in his or her hands. Several times I myself was offered my choice of one of these morsels, dripping with gore.
Father Bubendorf of Freiburg, an eye-witness to the slaughter of a group of captives outside the hut of a tribal chief, Onitsha, Nigeria, c. 1921
The Two Congo’s (DRC and ROC)
Marauding rebels were massacring and eating pygmies in the dense forests of north-east Congo, according to UN officials who are investigating allegations of cannibalism in Ituri province, where fighting between several rebel groups has displaced about 150,000 people in the past month.
Many of the displaced tell of rebel fighters capturing and butchering pygmies, Manoddje Mounoubai, spokesman for the UN ceasefire monitoring mission in Congo, said.
The UN had sent six officials to investigate the accusation as well as other human rights abuses, he said.
Other UN officials in the capital, Kinshasa, and the eastern city of Goma said that widespread cannibalism had already been established.
‘Ituri is completely out of control and cannibalism is just the latest atrocity taking place,’ said one, who asked not to be named until the investigators deliver their report. ‘Perhaps this will finally alert the world to what’s going on.’
Ituri’s forest-dwelling pygmy tribes have been caught between opposing groups supporting the government and Ugandan-backed rebel groups in the last battles of Congo’s four-year civil war.
The two Ugandan-backed movements routinely enslave pygmies to forage for forest food and prospect for minerals, a UN official said.
Hunters returning empty-handed were killed and eaten.
Sudi Alimasi, an official of the pro-government group Rally for Congolese Democracy-ML, said it had begun receiving reports of cannibalism from people displaced by fighting more than a week ago.
‘We hear reports of [enemy] commanders feeding on sexual organs of pygmies, apparently believing this would give them strength,’ he said.
‘We also have reports of pygmies being forced to feed on the cooked remains of their colleagues.’
Cannibalism has re-emerged throughout eastern Congo as the last vestiges of colonial influence have been eroded during the war. Much of the vast forested area is controlled by the Mayi-Mayi, a loose grouping of tribal militias united by their magical beliefs and taste for human flesh.
On a recent assignment in eastern Congo the Guardian correspondent saw many Mayi-Mayi fighters wearing parts of the bodies of their Rwandan enemies, in the belief that this would make them invincible.
‘We are hearing reports of untold horrors in Ituri,’ said Wyger Wentholt, of Médecins sans Frontières.
Report by James Astill in Nairobi, The Guardian, 9 January 2003
In Democratic Republic of Congo rebel fighters of Hema and Lendu tribes are known to practice the homicidal cannibalism to weaken and frighten the enemy. No-one was spared in the Congo civil war and even now as well the bitter truth continue to exist and being practiced.
Examples and evidences of cannibalism in other African countries:
Liberia – Today’s practice of ritual killings in Liberia – because it still exists! – Mainly is a combination of traditional beliefs which inspire men-eating and modern-day criminal behavior of unscrupulous politicians who consider their ambitions worth more than the life of their victims. During the 14-year civil war (1989-2003) there were so many cases of gunmen – some of them child soldiers – eating their victim’s hearts and other body parts that the Catholic Church issued a formal denunciation of these practices (Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy, 1999: dust-jacket?)
“Nor was it just teenage fighters who held the idea that they could have access to spiritual power through the consumption of human flesh, or at least by a ritual use of human body parts. Most interesting is the allegation concerning (President) Charles Taylor himself made by his former defense minister, Tom Woewiyu. “We saw a lot”, said Woewiyu, describing his time as Taylor’s right-hand man, “including the formation of a group of cannibals called Top 20. Taylor is a member of this group. Human sacrifices, under the direction of his uncle Jensen Taylor, take place in Taylor’s house.” A group of sixteen NPFL (Taylor’s army) generals and fourteen Special Force commandos made similar allegations concerning Taylor. They issued a formal statement affirming that “we …. stand in readiness to testify Taylor’s ritualistic killings of our peers.” Ellis concludes: ‘True or not, such claims are widely believed’ (Ellis, 1999: p. 264).
These accusations caused Charles Taylor to legally pursue Stephen Ellis. After the British Times newspaper repeated the allegations in its review of Ellis’ book (‘The Mask of Anarchy’ – see Sources) President Charles Taylor started a libel case against Ellis but he withdrew it, early 2001, allegedly because of the high cost of pursuing the case in London. Given his immense wealth, it is more likely that Taylor was afraid of being requested to come to London and testify before court, an action which would have made him vulnerable and susceptible of arrest which human rights groups were asking for because of his crimes against humanity. (The Guardian: 2 February, 2001).
Many more cases could be cited that sadly confirm Liberia’s reputation in the area of ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present. Ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present.
Sierra Leone – During civil war majority of the lives were lost not because of the fighting but by cannibalism. It was practiced to spread terror and to keep the captive rebels or prisoners away from the severe interrogations done by mercenaries or British Army or SAS. Here is the account of it which explores the rampant cannibalism in Sierra Leone the mercenaries encountered while waging war there and the international efforts to shape the nation and its neighbors…
CAPE TOWN, South Africa –”There is a lot of cannibalism in Sierra Leone,” said Bert Sachse, a 34-year veteran of the South African Special Forces and commander of the mercenary war during the mid-1990s in the troubled West African nation.
“If you capture the enemy, you want to interrogate them. For the Sierra Leone army, they wanted to eat the heart and or other vital organs of their enemies. We would have to fly out the prisoners we wanted to interrogate on the helicopters back to Freetown so they wouldn’t be eaten. The MI-17 would fly over and the Sierra Leone soldiers would look up and say, ‘There goes dinner.’ They would look upset. In certain parts of Sierra Leone cannibalism is rife.” Sandline and Executive Outcomes were the mercenary organizations, located in South Africa and London, for whom Sachse and his men worked.
Another Sandline soldier interviewed by WorldNetDaily commented, “One can only image the Sierra Leone soldiers eating the heart and other organs of an RUF prisoner. I have a mental picture of a soldier holding a heart in his mouth, and another eating a hand and Bert Sachse asking them, ‘How many times do we have to tell you not to eat the prisoners before we interrogate them? Didn’t you get the memo?'”
Continued Sachse: “When Kabbah came back, he had about 20 of the Sierra Leone army staff executed right in front of us. He said there was some kind of conspiracy. One of those executed was a military commander with whom Sandline/Executive Outcomes had worked quite closely. What could you do? The Nigerian peacekeepers executed them.”
It was not Breaker Morant with a cigarette and one round.
“They tied them up to trees and mowed them down. Guys got chopped. They were dead or dying and the Nigerians would call for more magazines of ammo,” explained Sachse while waving his arms to show how the Nigerians called for more ammo during the executions.
Sachse lamented the chaos so prevalent in African armed forces, saying, “Some soldiers in Africa were paid with bags of rice. A sergeant major might get five bags of rice, but another soldier with more children might get only one bag of rice and that would lead to bad morale. The Sierra Leone army was a bloody rabble. The SADF was efficient. It all started with the Rhodesian army. Minimum casualties and maximum effect.”
Uganda – Few people outside Uganda know that in the north the government is fighting a fanatical and murderous cult – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) – whose fighting force is made up in large part of abducted children. Up to 95 per cent of the population in these areas has been forced from their homes by the war. Nearly two million Ugandans, out of a population of 24.7 million, now live in refugee camps for fear of being attacked and killed in their villages.
Children have told how they had been forced by the rebels at gunpoint to abduct and murder other children and to drink their blood. A former commander of the rebel group explained that he had forced villagers to chop up, cook and eat their neighbours before he killed them, too.
On 20th September 2008 a 33 year old Sowedi Kimera has been arrested in Uganda on suspicion of cannibalism. Police raided Kimera’s Kireka home on Thursday after being alerted to a corpse on the premises.
Mr Kimera was arrested in the early hours of Thursday morning after residents and Local Council officials tipped the Police of an unidentified body in his house. Police say they searched the house on Wednesday evening and discovered the body of a woman in Kimera’s living room, they traced Kimera to a local bar and arrested him on suspicion of cannibalism. Local residents attempted to lynch Kimera as he was taken into custody.
The dead woman found in Kimera’s home is believed to be Annet Mbabazi, a resident of Kireka. Mr Kimera reportedly checked her body out of the town morgue on Wednesday night, but he gave no explanation as to how or why he took the body.
Fiji – Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes was quite rampant and very much part of everyday life. During the 19th century, Ratu Udre Udre is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement. According to Deryck Scarr (“A Short History of Fiji”, 1984, page 3), “Ceremonial occasions saw freshly killed corpses piled up for eating.’Eat me!’ was a proper ritual greeting from a commoner to a chief.” Scarr also reported that the posts that supported the chief’s house or the priest’s temple would have sacrificed bodies buried underneath them, with the rationale that the spirit of the ritually sacrificed person would invoke the gods to help support the structure, and “men were sacrificed whenever posts had to be renewed” (Scarr, page 3). Also, when a new boat, or drua, was launched, if it was not hauled over men as rollers, crushing them to death, “it would not be expected to float long” (Scarr, page 19″). Fijians today regard those times as “na gauna ni tevoro” (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles, in turn Fiji was unknown to the rest of the outside world. “Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals”.
Germany – Armin Meiwes is a German man who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary victim whom he had found via the Internet. After Meiwes and the victim jointly attempted to eat the victim’s severed penis, Meiwes killed his victim and proceeded to eat a large amount of his flesh. Because of his acts, Meiwes is also known as the Rotenberg Cannibal or Der Metzgermeister (The Master Butcher). Though he was arrested in 2002 but he committed this act in 2001 when he got his reply to his advertisement posted on some internet site now defunct. An Italian Bernd Jürgen Brandes then answered the advertisement. As is known from a videotape the two made when they met on 9 March 2001 in Meiwes’s home in the small village of Rotenburg, Meiwes amputated Brandes’ penis and the two men attempted to eat the penis together before Brandes was killed. Brandes had insisted that Meiwes attempt to bite his penis off. This did not work and ultimately, Meiwes used a knife to remove Brandes’ penis. Brandes apparently tried to eat some of his own penis raw, but could not because it was too tough and, as he put it, “chewy”. Meiwes then fried the penis in a pan with salt, pepper, wine and garlic; he then fried it with some of Brandes’ fat but by then it was too burned to be consumed. He then chopped it up into chunks and fed it to his dog. According to journalists who saw the video (which has not been made public), Brandes may already have been too weakened from blood loss to actually eat any of his penis. Meiwes read a book for three hours, while Brandes lay bleeding in the bath. Meiwes apparently gave him large quantities of alcohol and pain killers, twenty sleeping pills and a bottle of schnapps, kissed him and finally killed him in a room that he had built in his house for this purpose, the Slaughter Room. After stabbing Brandes to death in the throat, he hung the body on a meat hook and tore chunks of flesh from it; he even tried to grind the bones to use as flour. The whole scene was recorded on the two-hour video tape. Meiwes enjoyed eating the body over the next 10 months, storing body parts in his freezer under pizza boxes and consuming up to 20 kilograms (44 lb) of the flesh. According to prosecutors, Meiwes committed the act for sexual enjoyment. Meiwes has admitted what he did, and expressed regret for his actions. He added he wanted to write a book of his life story with the aim of deterring anyone who wants to follow his steps. Websites dedicated to Meiwes have appeared, with people advertising for willing victims. “They should go for treatment, so it doesn’t escalate like it did with me”, said Meiwes. He believes there are over 100 cannibals in Germany. What was shocking was that cannibalism in not a sin as per Germany code of law.
Ukraine, Russia and CIS
Ukraine – On July 15, 2002, police in the central Ukranian town of Zhytomyr said they have arrested three men and a woman on suspicion of murdering and cannibalizing up to six people, including an 18-year-old girl. “They killed a young woman in a forest and then cut out fleshy parts of the body and ate them. This is horrible,” a police spokeswoman told the Reuters news agency. In what is believed to have been a satanic ritual, the suspects killed the 18-year-old with two knife thrusts to the heart, local interior ministry representative Viktor Kurbatov told the press. She was also scalped and decapitated. Then the suspects boiled her head in water and ate pieces from it. The cannibal crew was arrested several days after the murder when they went to meet the girl’s parents to collect a $3,000 ransom.
Crimea – In March, 1996, police in the Crimean city of Sebastopol were called to investigate a murder. Nothing had prepared them for the carnage they discovered when they entered the home of a former convict and found the mutilated remains of human bodies being prepared for eating. The flat’s owner, her mother and her boyfriend, had been stabbed to death by the 33-year-old suspect and their bodies neatly butchered. In the kitchen investigators found the internal organs of two victims in saucepans, and nearby on a plate a freshly roasted piece of human flesh.
Finnish soldiers displaying Soviet soldiers’ skins near Maaselkä, on the strand of lake Seesjärvi during Continuation War on the 15th of December in 1942. Original caption: “An enemy recon patrol that was cut out of food supplies had butchered a few members of their own patrol group, and had eaten most of them.”
Perestroika– Alarmingly, cannibalism is becoming way of life in the former Soviet Union. In the 1996 ten people were charged with killing and eating other people. Police estimate that at least 30 people were eaten that year.
Newspaper reports across the former Soviet Union Republics speak of cases of vagrants being eaten, or their bodies being cut up and sold to unsuspecting passers-by. “We have information about cases where human flesh is sold in street markets; also when homeless people kill each other and sell the flesh. Every month we find corpses with missing body parts.”
An apocryphal story — which may or may not be true — relates how two winos fed a buddy human flesh. The man ate with great appetite, but when he learned the true source of the meal, he hanged himself.
Siberia – In 1996 a man in the Siberian coal mining town of Kemerovo was arrested after he admitted killing and cutting up a friend, and using his flesh as the filling for pelmeni, a Russian version of ravioli which, coincidentally, is the favorite dish of the Yeltsin family. The scam was uncovered when rag-pickers scavenging through a garbage dump discovered a severed human head. Soon they discovered that the rest of the body had been minced, put into pelmeny, and sold at cut-price prices in the local market.
Kirgizstan – Russia’s most industrious cannibal, Nikolai Dzhurmongaliev is believed to have killed up to 100 women, and served many of them to his dinner guests. Nikolai used at least 47 of his victims to make ethnic dishes for his neighbors in the Kyrgyzstan. When arrested Nikolai pointed out that two women could provide enough delicate meat to keep him going for a week.
Prison – Twice last year convicts in overcrowded prisons killed and ate their cellmates because they claimed they were hungry and wanted to relieve overcrowding. Criminal experts said that most cases of cannibalism in Russia were part of the general rise of serial killings, and because of Russia’s mounting economic and social problems.
Barnaul – Offering no other explanation than not wanting to share his cell, Andrei Maslich, 24, strangled his fellow prisoner and then cut out his liver with a shard of broken glass. He put the organ in a mug with water and boiled it up on a makeshift fire made from his bedding. Standing in the defendant’s cage in the court room, Maslich admitted to drinking up his homemade stew. The next morning, part of the shrunken organ was found in the mug.
Maslich, a four-time convicted murderer, was initially given his first death penalty last year after he and another inmate strangled, cooked and ate another prisoner. Then they told authorities they were bored and wanted to visit Moscow, where they thought they would be sent for psychiatric examinations.
Kazakhstan – In the Semipalatinsk prison in Kazakhstan, four convicts — who blamed their actions on newspaper articles about instances of cannibalism in prison — decided to eat the very first “new guy” placed in their cell. So when a convict named Volchenkov showed up, they killed him, cut meat from his arms and back, cooked it up, and ate it. Some pieces were fried on a hot plate and some of were boiled in an electric kettle.
Kzyl Orda – A man guarding a pot field in Kzyl Orda region of Kazakstan confessed to shooting and cannibalizing his comrade. The suspect, identified only by the single name Zhusaly, salted the flesh of his buddy and ate it for 10 days. The man — along with three farmers charged with growing the pot — was arrested in a drug raid. The three also have been charged with concealing murder.
Berezniki – The grim discovery of cannibalism in Perm Oblast unfolded when Citizen K. brought to the police station a package of human flesh. He had bought it on the street. His wife, having studied the piece, discovered skin on it. Specialists say that the taste of “people meat” is a specific one, and has a distinctive smell when it’s cooked. “The taste of a victim,” it is asserted, in full seriousness, at the Main Criminal Investigations Administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, “depends on the victim himself: if he drank or smoked a lot, whether he liked sweets or salt…”
F.A. Boldyshev and his friend N.V. Ostanin, got drunk with a third man, A.P. Vavilin, and killed him. Then they dismembered his corpse and had one of their mother’s cook the choice cuts. After gladly gorging themselves, they packed up the remains and sold them in the street. Vavilin’s head, hands, and feet were thrown into the attic. In custody the lethal trio confessed they did it so to save money on the purchase of normal food.
The Urals – Anatoly Dolbyshev, a resident of Berezniki in the Urals region of Perm, was found guilty of stabbing to death a friend of his mother’s in a fight. He was also charged with “swindling and appropriation of property through deceit,” when he cut up his victim’s body and sold pieces of the human flesh to unsuspecting local townsfolk in exchange for vodka. Police arrested Anatoly when one buyer found a strip of human skin in the meat.
Moscow – Citizen Kolpakov from Nizhnyy Novgorod, a lodger of a rooming house, was killed by the son of the woman who owned the apartment. The killer cut a piece of soft tissue from the forearm, fried it in a frying pan, and ate it. A panel of experts found him to be of diminished responsibility.
Marshal Tukachevensky Street – Moskovsky Komsomolets, Moscow’s most popular daily, reported a grisly finding on Marshal Tukhachevksy Street. A beggar rummaging for food through the rubbish bins finds a human foot and several other body parts. Police called to the scene found more evidence of murder: four hands, four shoulders and three feet, all female. “It became clear to the detectives that they were dealing with not one, but two murders,” the newspaper reported.
Chuvash Autonomous Republic – On July 3, 1997, the supreme court of Russia’s Chuvash Autonomous Republic sentenced Vladimir Nikolayev, 38, to death for killing and cannibalizing two people in the town of Novocheboksary. Nikolayev, denounced as a particularly dangerous criminal ten years before, was being arrested in his apartment in the winter of 1996 when police found a pan of roasted human meat on the stove and another cannibal dish in the oven. In the snow on his balcony Nikolayev had more bodies’ part stored to eat later. Investigators who questioned Nikolayev said he had jokingly asked them to prepare him a dinner using his stock of human meat.
Novokuznetsk – In a one man crusade to cleanse modern Russia from the permissiveness of democracy, Sasha Spesivtsev, 27, killed at least 19 street children who he saw as the detritus of society. The unemployed black marketeer would lure his homeless victims from the streets and local train stations in the Siberian town of Novokuznetsk to his home where, with the help of his mother, he killed and ate them.
Udmurtian – In a settlement of Novyy, two men — Rasskazov and Bobylev — were charged with killing and eating their drinking partner Alekhin.
In a stream outside Novokuznetsk, 43 bone fragments were found of six bodies — four boys, one girl, and one man. The criminologists have a theory: A whole family was done away with. But in order to “establish genetic identity,” it was necessary to conduct a special analysis of the bones. And the Internal Affairs Ministry official in charge of the case says, “These preserved bones have lain in my refrigerator for a month already, waiting for the chemicals. Special preparations are very expensive…”
Mantorovo – Situated on a tributary of the Volga, Manturovo is a quiet town of 22,000, where two women — Valentina Dolbilina, a 36-year-old mother of a four-year-old boy, and Vitaly Bezrodnov, 28, a factory worker — were accused of killing their drinking partner and then cooking his flesh.
After a night of heavy drinking, Bezrodnov announced he was hungry and “would like some meat”. After checking out one of their drinking buddies who was dead drunk in the corridor, they decided he was too skinny and packed him off home. Their gluttonous eyes then fell on a fourth member of the party, who was a bit fatter. Propelling him into the tiny kitchen, Bezrodnov asked Dolbilina for something heavy. With Dostoevskian inspiration she fetched an axe, and the victim was hit on the head, beheaded, undressed and then cut up into pieces. As Dolbilina held a tray, some 15 pounds of meat was cut from the thigh and rump, and put in the frying pan.
Awakened by the unusual smell of cooking meat, her flatmate, Boris Komarov, came into her room and asked to join the feast. Despite the haze of drink, even he noticed something strange. “It was a bit tough,” he said. He was reassured by Bezrodnov, who said they had killed a stray dog for the pot.
Satisfied by this explanation, Komarov skept eating the leg of man straight from the pan. Little did he realise the full ghastliness of the situation: the dead man was his own brother, Leonid. Even the little boy, Roma, was served a slice of Leonid. The kid later blurted out: “Mummy killed a man and served him up to her friends.”
St. Petersburg – Local cannibal Ilshat Kuzikov liked to marinate choice cuts with onions in a plastic bag hung outside his window. When the police forced their way into his home, they found Pepsi bottles full of blood and dried ears hanging on the wall – his winter supplies. He offered the officers some meat and vodka if they would let him go.
On March 19, 1997, Kuzikov was found guilty of killing three of his vodka drinking buddies and eating their internal organs, and was sent to a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. The confessed cannibal said he killed his first victim in 1992 after inviting him to his flat for a nightcap. Ilshat, 37, said he became a cannibal because he couldn’t buy enough to eat on his $20 monthly pension. After sating his appetite Kuzikov dismembered his friends and put them in a garbage dump.
During Stalin Rule – Russians have known cannibalism caused by genuine hunger. Due to the brutality of the Soviet Government there have been famines the like of which has not been seen in the West since the 19th century. In 1921 about five million people died in the Volga and Urals region, while the Ukraine was devastated in 1931 during Stalin’s collectivization of the farms. To survive the 444-day siege of Leningrad by the Germans, the defenders ate corpses.
Rostov – The grandfather of Russian-style cannibalism Andrei Chikatilo, believed that his brother had been murdered and his body parts sold during the Ukrainian famine of 1931. In a grim reminder of Andrei’s rampage, in January, 1997, Vladimir Mukhankin, 36, pleaded guilty to murdering eight women in Rostov-a-Don.
There is an association in an isolated Columbian Island republic of Isla Provedencia. Where a person named Perro Loco a self styled prophet and religious leader of the holy church of Dolcett California runs an organization called C&MHFSA – California & Midwest Human Female
Stockman’s Association of whom he says is chairman. He claims to be a supplier of high quality human female meat to various clients in Britain and other European countries. As per his website details he claims that girls volunteer themselves for the snuff video training and they have the option of either to volunteer for butchering or being a breeding sex slave to their owners.
Here is the link to its website: http://web.archive.org/web/20021002102029/http://www.necrobabes.org/perroloco/Previews.html
this is the same website which was used by the German Armin Meiwes where he had posted his advertisement for cannibalistic desire. This association calls human female as their cows which are used who are trained and sent for slaughtering process and even for the porn activities before being slaughtered as show girls. This person has even accepted his daughter’s application for cattle training and slaughtering her.
Opinion: First of all the practice of this heinous act cannibalism whether being practice as ritual, for cremation, for homicide or for just taboo or even for just for sexual pleasure or salvation but it will always be treated as in human and brutal. Whether religion or habit must not be entertain or shouldn’t be encouraged by any. It not only shows the psychological disorders but can cause the spread of severe epidemic like Kuru or even Aids.
Cannibalism is the most dreaded act will always remain the so which can be said otherwise the height of one’s mental disorder or physic. Government should at all cost must ban and regulate the practice of this serious and heinous sin which being a world’s oldest taboo still haunting the people lives in this civilized world showing uncivilized cultural tastes of the cannabis. The countries like Germany and others whether growing or poor must forced their people to keep their selves away from this sort of witch craft practices and destructive self fish practiced pleasures. Buddhists should not only revive and improve their practice of flesh cleaning before cremation but also discourage others to practice this exorcist’s culture.
There was a massiv earthquake in Turkey/Van 5 days ago. Today the numbers of the dead has rised to575, injured is 2608 and at least 8026 households has been homeless.
The citizens of Van is in our thoughts and prayers.
I also congratulate the Turkish people on their Republic day on October 29, 2011
Cheetah which once roamed freely across Asia is now only found in less than hundred found now only in Iran’s central desert with few sightings in Baluchistan – Pakistan. The head and body of the adult Asiatic Cheetah measure from 112 to 135 cm with a tail length between 66 and 84 cm. It can weigh from 34 to 54 kg, but the male is slightly larger than the female. Cheetah is the only specie which become extinct in India in last 100 years.
Percept as the trophy hunter for black buck & gazelle hunting. At one time Mughal Emperor Akbar used to had 1000 Indian Cheetahs as pets used mostly for his hunting expeditions, its depiction can be seen in paintings & miniatures of mediaeval era. Hunted for passion & driven near to extinction also because of the habitat loss & conversion of grasslands into farm lands. The survival rate is also low as there the fertility is very low & infant mortality rate is high, captive breeding has never been successful of Cheetahs worldwide & has never been attempted for Asiatic Cheetah. Cheetah’s presence in India known to have from many centuries, its name was derived from Sanskrit word chitraka.
The last three Indian Cheetahs were shot in 1947 in Sarguja Madhya Pradesh – India by Maharaja Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo.
Indian Cheetah used to prey on black bucks, nilgai, hare, spotted dear, sambar.
The Rewilding Program: Indian Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh has initiated a program for re introducing Asiatic Cheetah in India under captive breeding program but the vets are concerned & has warned about the gene pool disaster as the pure gene pool is limited & lacks the fertility ration due to the near extinction numbers.
Pashtunwali which is equally important for any Afghan just like Islam to him has suffered most after 1857 after the defeat of Rohilla Pashtuns who ruled the large swaths of North India as Rohilla Empire & drastically after 1947. The code of conduct & framework of life for pathans have seen a sharp decline in practise through decades. As India got divided & the basics gone to the newly formed state of Pakistan & some took shelter back into their ancestral vicinity the remaining part of the same blood struggles to survive with his culture & traditions which once ruled the nation where their code was the law for many & soul for millions. With the changing times & a political scenario the traditions were hard to carried out when effects of it overwhelmed the Afghan minority left with just a old glory to survive & the patriotic commitments. With the gene pool getting mixed with other religion & communities the inter change brings the whole new sky of sociological transformation.
Loss of Traditions & Code: Traditions & qualities like hospitality, love, justice, forgiveness, tradition like folk dance, songs & other cultural activities were the words of by gone era & if survived were got mixed with the inter ethnic marriages. The Pashtoon code which rules the Afghans & Their tribes were lost forever as the new generations were more left with little or no knowledge passed by their glorified parents resulting in the loss of titles & their acceptance in the new Indian society in general. After 1947 with the loss of Jirga in pashtuns left in India the complete traditional collapsed. The code of unity & equality fought the lost battle as the Islam in India took a divided turn segregating it into numerous jamats & ideologies with the countless schools of thought prescribing their own social structure.
Centers of Pashtunwali in India under Rohilla Empire: The cities like Bareilly, Rampur, Meerut, Lucknow, Amroha, Sambhal, Muzaffarnagar, Shahjahanpur, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra & many countless towns where once Pashtuns had ruled & flourished were the deserts of Afghan culture which were created on the grave of Pashtunwali. The worst loss which the Afghans faced was the loss & no use of their language Pashto where at one time the whole nation reads & speaks with pride & glory though Pashto still taught which survives in the text books of some institutions offering higher studies in it.
Today hardly any code in Pathan society or famously in India called Khans follows their ancestral code of conduct which is even greater than their own values & religion from generations is now completely lost in the dirt of the so called western influence of the Afghan society surviving here. With the loss of the blood line the Indian pathans face grime future of their traditions & is already separated by Afghans who distinguish them as by saying Ban I Afghani or Ban I Isrial while calling their Indian left over generation simply as Indian Pathans.
One can see & enjoy traditional ghazals, qawwalis or sufi music indigenous to Afghan pashtuns, folk dance, poetry by the scholars. Historical monuments built by Afghans are still standing intact with care & respect across India which attracts millions of tourists each year.
The order which governed India for centuries is now only present in the Indian History text books surviving with its lost shadow.
India a land of incredible diversity is also blessed by the extreme diverse bio diversity. During Imperial era it was the most favourite hunting ground for Europeans who used to come here for its exotic fauna & serenity. Yet India’s diverse wilderness areas encompass far more. In addition to rainforests, they include moist and dry deciduous forests, thorn forests, deserts, mangroves, grasslands, and coniferous forests in the Himalayas, not to mention a variety of freshwater and marine habitats. India’s diverse landscapes are home to numerous threatened and critically endangered species, including the Asiatic lion, Asian elephant, tiger, white-rumped vulture, Asian one-horned rhinoceros, and water buffalo. Many species of deer, antelopes, wild dogs, cats, and bears also live here. Resident primates include macaques, the hoolock gibbon, slender and slow lorises, and the golden langur—one of the world’s rarest monkeys. Besides mammals, there is a vast and diverse array of reptiles, amphibians, and birds, some of which are still unknown to science. The expeditions were also being lead by local Kings for big game hunting. Once available & roamed in plenty Indian jungles were full of life where the Lord & the King roams freely sharing their own spaces where people survives harmoniously with the beasts. As India moves towards achieving her independence the laws & importance of conservation has become a new driver for nationalism the first attempt was made to protect Indian Wildlife was through the Elephant Preservation Act passed in 1879. The first abode of bio diversity which was granted protection was Gir National Park which is also a last home of Asiatic Lions, once used to be hunting ground of Nawab of Junagarh is now protected & was initially conserved & preserved by the then Last ruling Nawab of Junagarh “Nawabzada Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III Rasul Khan Ji” in the early 20th century now since the King of the Jungle had got protection then how can the Lord of the jungle remain at the back stage it was ultimately in 1936 by British Govt in India declaring 1200sqkm forest in United Provinces at the foot hills of Himalayas a terrai region famous for its natural habitat for Tigers was made protected as Hailey National Park. When India gain independence & the wounds of partition started to showing the bio diversity was affected the most by the big game hunting during this period realizing the state of her valuable heritage was given protection finally under the famous Wild Life Protection Act of 1972. At the turn of the last decade of the 20th century India has now become an open victim of hunger of the Far East markets which resulted in the huge demand & poaching activities widespread, this not only made our forests empty & scarce of wildlife now taking its toll especially on the Indian National Animal “ Bengal Tiger” by the start of 1990s’ their population dwindled from 100000 to 80000 in 1950s’ to 20000 in late 1980s’ by the end of the 20th century India now left with only 4000 Tigers & handful of other wild fauna. With the introduction of Project Tiger, Project Rhino & Project Elephant Indian somehow lived up to the expectations of hope for the future generations. But by the end of first decade of 21st century the situation has became more critical & laws a failure. With the pressure of population increasing & Indian Government finds solution for economic prosperity & food security there is hardly any scope left for the survival of the once roamed in abundance the Indian bio diversity. The latest hustle & stiffness is now for the Asiatic Lions & Tiger Poaching which is now has become a hot topic of debate between the respective state governments & national interests. If we want to save our wild life we have to work together & eradicate the corruption from our system which hinders the execution of laws & conservation responsibility. With the clearing of the entire Tiger population in the reserves like Sariska & Panna the future looks more bleek & reminded us the extinction of Dinosaurs.
The critically endangered species in India, as identified by the IUCN and WII include the Jenkins Shrew, Malabar Large-spotted Civet, Namdapha Flying Squirrel, Pygmy Hog, Salim Ali`s Fruit Bat, Sumatran Rhinoceros, and the Wroughton`s Free-tailed Bat. The list of Endangered species in India include the Asiatic Lion, Asiatic Black Bear, Desert Cat, Great Indian Rhinoceros, Hispid Hare, Hoolock Gibbon, Kashmir Stag, Lion-Tailed Macaque, Malabar Civet, Markhor, Nayan Ovis, Nilgiri Leaf Monkey, Pygmy Hog, Andaman Shrew, Andaman Spiny Shrew, Indian Elephant or Asian Elephant, Banteng, Blue Whale, Capped Leaf Monkey, Chiru, Fin Whale, Ganges River Dolphin, Golden Leaf Monkey, Hispid Hare, Asian arowana, Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Hoolock Gibbon, Indus River Dolphin, Kondana Soft-furred Rat, Lion-Tailed Macaque, Markhor, Marsh Mongoose, Nicobar Shrew, Nicobar Tree Shrew, Nilgiri Tahr, Parti-coloured Flying Squirrel, Peter`s Tube-nosed Bat, Red Panda, Sei Whale, Servant Mouse, Snow Leopard, Tiger, Wild Water Buffalo, and the Woolly Flying Squirrel.
Apart from the critically endangered and the endangered species in India, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and Wildlife Institute of India also identified several species as vulnerable in India. These species include the Asiatic Wild Dog, Banteng Bos javanicus, Brow-antlered Deer, Brown Bear, Brown Palm Civet, Clouded Leopard, Common Otter, Ganges River Dolphin, Gaur, Goral, Grey Indian Wolf, Himalayan W-toothed Shrew, Himalayan Musk Deer, Himalayan Shrew, Jackal Canis aureus, Andaman Horseshoe Bat, Andaman Rat, Argali, Asiatic Black Bear, Asiatic Golden Cat, Asiatic Wild Ass, Macaque Monkey, Back-striped Weasel, Barasingha, Bare-bellied Hedgehog, Blackbuck, Brown fish owl, Central Kashmir Vole, Dhole, Dugong, Eld`s Deer, Elvira Rat, Eurasian Otter, Fishing Cat, Four-horned Antelope, Gaur, Himalayan Tahr, Humpback Whale, Indian Giant Squirrel, Irrawaddy Squirrel, Jerdon`s Palm Civet, Kashmir Cave Bat, Kerala Rat, Khajuria`s Leaf-nosed Bat, Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat, Lesser Horseshoe Bat, Mainland Serow, Malayan Porcupine, Mandelli`s Mouse-eared Bat, Marbled Cat, Mouflon, Nicobar Flying Fox, Nilgiri Leaf Monkey, Nilgiri Marten, Nonsense Rat, Pale Grey Shrew, Palm Rat, Red Goral, Royal Bengal Tiger, Rock Eagle-owl, Rusty-spotted Cat, Sikkim Rat, Sloth Bear, Slow Loris, Smooth-coated Otter, Sperm Whale, Sri Lankan Giant Squirrel, Sri Lankan Highland Shrew, Stumptail Macaque, Takin, Wild Goat, Wild Yak and the Lesser Panda. The species like the Indian Wild Ass, the Leopard and the Red Fox have been identified as the `Threatened Species in India`.
The Biggest lost of Wild Life is the extinction of Indian Cheetah once roamed freely & found in huge numbers last shot in 1947 was the worst loss at the very start of the new independent era. It is said that Mughal Ruler Akbar used to have the 11 cheetahs as pets. Acts like Forest Rights & Produce Act introduced in early 2000s’ meant for the protection of Wild Life & for Tribals living there are necessary in this modern stage where existence of every specie is important as humans.
Japan is used to natural calamities especially earthquakes. Shaking the whole nation at 2:30pm afternoon Japan’s Time, the whole nation was now under threat from the massive calamity which has struck Japan paralysing nation to halt. Hundreds & thousands of people have been evacuated from the low lying areas especially in the north eastern islands. With its epi centre near the coast of North Eastern Islands of Japan measuring 8.9 on ricter scale not only shookes the nation in Sendai city but also triggering in the massive tsunami which with the force of more than 10 mtr waves full of filth & debris caused the massive damage to the infrastructure & taking the death toll of 300 which is still increasing, flooding towns & sweeping away cars, ships, boats & houses reaching almost 10 kms inland. It struck with such a huge force that one train was swept away which went missing near Kyodo & derailing the other leaving no traces of the number of people on board where water crossing the roof tops. Airports are shut down. One of the major terminal of Tokyo Airport was completley damaged. Train service through out Japan has been cancelled. It is in nature of Japanese People that in such a massive catastrophy they were seeing helping people & were in their full senses which have resulted in the lower death toll as compared to the Earthquake which struck Kobe in 1995.
Now the major concern of Japan & his people is that Fukushima nuclear plant has been shut down due to the Tsunami flooding & aftershocks continued to be felt across the Pacific. Now the danger is of a radioactive reactor which due to power shut down it wasn’t cooled as the cooling systeme which flows cool water into the reactor was got malfuntioned.
Aftermath & Resque Operations: Across the Pacific aftershocks are being felt. The Tsunami warning is been sounding in Hawaii, North American West Coast, Chile, Peru, & South East Asia, schools & offices are asked to remain closed for tommorrow as precaution. Nuclear Emergency has been declared by the Japanese Prime Minister due to the shut down of Nuclear Power Plants & the danger of the leakage of radiation from Fukushima plant. UN has organised the world’s biggest rescue operation for Japan involving 3000 – 4000 forces, 300 ships & the same number of air planes. From now the assumptions are being drawn that insurance sector has been hardest hit & now in Japan claim against natural catastrophy will be the most expensive. The infrastructure of Japan has suffered the most & it will now going to take months to bring it to complete functionality.
The rainforest has a unique diversity and exuberance and this plays an important role for life in the rainforest. As much as 7 % of land in the world is covered by rainforest.
2000 millimeters of rain falls in a forest at least 1 year.
50 % of the rain forest comes from evaporation from the forest vegetation.
10 meter water level can vary in a waterway depends on rainfall.
In 5 minutes, it fell 6.3 cm rain in Portobelo in Panama in 1911, which is world record.
1/5 of world’s river water are found in the Amazon.
On 1 hectar rainforest….
- Grows 200-300 different tree species
- There are 734 tribes in Ecuador. It provides 13 to 14 square feet for each tree.
- There is formed about 22 tons of new plant mass each year.
The oldest rainforest is believed to be 60 million years.
The tallest trees can be 80 meters high.
It was found 7780 species of trees native to Brazil. In Iceland, the number is 3.
300 meters long vines winding up through the canopy.
A mahogany uses 100 years to reach full size.
Canopy forms a canopy of leaves 20 to 40 meters above the ground and this is where you’ll find most of the wildlife.
As a common mahogany, taking the tree with the 28 other trees and it’s illegal.
1% sunlight reaches the forest ground.
It was picked up 296 million tons of iron in 2007 from the world’s richest iron mine in the middle of Brazil’s rainforest.
50 million people are believed to live in the world’s rain forests.
155,000 of the 250,000 known plant species are found in rain forests. Over half of these plant and animal species thus belong at home in the rainforest.
Less than 1 % of the forest trees and plants have now been scientifically studied. Despite this, strains ¼ of the active substances used in medicine from rainforest plants.
The insect, walking stick that was discovered on Borneo has a length of 56, 6 cm, making it the world’s longest insect.
Rafflesia Flower Arnoldii in Southeast Asia can be one meter in diameter, making it the worlds largest.
World Rainforest Nations:
- Brazil – 4,715,000 km2 (55% of the country’s area)
- DR Congo – 1,330,000 km2 (57%)
- Indonesia – 848,000 km2 (45%)
- Peru – 686,000 km2 (53%)
- Colombia – 606,000 km2 (53%)
Felling of the rain forest continues despite all protests. 2/3 of the world’s rainforests have disappeared since the mid 1800’s, and the pace is not lowered. This year approximately 13 million hectares will be folded down. There are about 4000 square meters per second.
Felling of the forest 2000 – 2005, by country:
- Other countries – 31%
- Brazil – 27%
- Indonesia – 17%
- Myanmar – 4%
- Zambia – 4%
- Tanzania – 4%
- Nigeria – 4%
- DR Congo – 3%
- Zimbabwe – 3%
- Venezuela – 3%
Пуштунских Вали является неписаным демократических, социально-политической культуры, права и идеологии общества пуштунов, унаследовали от своих предков и несущая на нынешнее поколение, как правовой и моральный кодекс, который определяет общественный порядок и ответственность.
Это древний “кодекс чести”, который принадлежит пуштунов Афганистана и Пакистана, в том числе пуштунских общин по всему миру. Пуштунов объятия древних традиционных, духовных и общинной идентичности связана с множеством моральных кодексов и правил поведения, который является гибким и динамичным, содержащие современные и древние принципы.
Эта система управляется всех социальных и внутренних дел общества пуштунов до и после ислама. Он создал малых и больших местных органов власти в Центральной и Южной Азии, и это социально практикуется большинством.
Пуштунских Вали способствует самоуважению, независимости, справедливости, гостеприимство, любовь, прощение, месть и терпимости по отношению ко всем, особенно с незнакомыми людьми и гостей. Все эти кодексы поведения являются полезными в поддержании социальных и моральных сдержек и противовесов в обществе пуштунов. Считается, личной ответственности каждого пуштунского, чтобы обнаружить и заново открыть для себя пуштунских Вали сущность и значение.
За 8 веков “национализм пуштунов формируется политическая центрального правительства в первый раз в 12 веке, а затем создали сильное централизованное правительство в середине 18 века.
Все малые и большие племена и этнические группы приняли участие в реформе и совершенствованию государственного управления и в различных экономических, социальных и культурных аспектов. С укрепление отношений между этими этническими группами в социально-экономические вопросы, пуштунов национализм был преобразован в афганской национализма.
Пуштунских вали это первый камень фундамента, пуштунов национализм второй и афганского национализма является третьей и эволюционные фазы политической структуры.
* Вера – вера в Бога (известный как “Аллах”) понятие доверия в Единого Творца.
* Хорошие мысли, хорошие слова, добрые дела – пуштунские всегда должны стремиться к мышления хорошие мысли, говорить хорошие слова и делать добрые дела.
* Поведение – пуштуны должны вести себя уважительно по отношению ко всем творениям, включая людей, животных и окружающей среды вокруг них. Загрязнение окружающей среды и / или его уничтожения против Вали пуштунов.
* Единства – над языках они говорят, выше крови они держат, выше сумму денег, которую они делают, пуштунских Вали объединяет пуштунов, как один народ во всем мире. Там, где есть подлинное единство, все усилия, чтобы разъединить их будет только способствовать укреплению единства у них есть. Что происходит с одним – случается со всеми.
* Равенство – Каждый человек равны. Каждый человек хочет сказать в своем будущем, и он будет бороться за право, чтобы его мнение было услышано. Все люди должны поэтому иметь дело друг с другом, с надлежащим вежливость и уважение, и никто не может навязывать свою волю другому.
* Гостеприимство и святилище – Быть гостеприимным для всех, и специально для гостей, даже самых враждебных врагов может (если просили) предоставляется убежище, убежище или защиту, а также продовольствия и другой помощи.
* Юстиции и прощение – Если намеренно обиды другого, потерпевший имеет право, даже обязанность, чтобы отомстить за эту несправедливость в равной пропорции. Если намеренно обидел тебя, и ты не искал справедливости и не правонарушителя просим вас за его / ее о прощении, то долг, это объясняется вам его / ее, которые могут быть выполнены только один раз правосудия (через акт мести или решение Совета джирги) была предоставлена компенсация неправильно сделали.
* Братства и доверия – вера в то, что братьям пуштунских, или сестер, должно быть надежным и содействие в максимально возможной степени.
* Честь – пуштуны должны сохранять свою независимость и человеческое достоинство. Честь имеет большое значение в пуштунского общества и его очень важно сохранить свою честь и гордость.
* Самоуважение – Люди должны уважать себя и других, чтобы быть в состоянии сделать это, особенно тех, кого они не знают. Уважение начинается дома, между членами семьи и родственниками.
* Доброта и сотрудничества – бедных, слабых, и оспаривается должны быть поддержаны. Включение должно быть предпочтительным для изоляции. Чтобы защититься от тирании, фашизма и переусердствовать групп и работать умные, а затем тяжело.
* Семья – семье должен быть прославлен в священных убеждение ответственность и обязанность по отношению к женам, дочерям, старейшины, родители, сыновья и мужья.
* Мы одна семья – сотрудник пуштунских нужно беречь. Там могут быть сотни племен, но они имеют одну судьбу в союзе друг с другом.
* Знание – пуштуны искать объективные знания в жизни, искусства, науки и культуры, которые считаются плоды, предоставленных Богом.
* Пуштунских истории – Великая значение помещается в пуштунских истории, трагедий и побед. Она учит пуштунов “держать ум открытым, чтобы продолжить поиск истины, большая часть которых исчезла под самой истории”.
* Бороться со злом – зло на постоянной войны с хорошим. Зло должно быть сражались и хорошо должны превалировать над злом. Это обязанность пуштунов, чтобы бороться со злом, когда он / она встречается лицом к лицу с ним.
* Честность и Promise – пуштунские известен выполняют своих обещаний и быть честными в любой ситуации и времени. Истинной пуштунских не нарушу свое обещание.
* Гостеприимство-пуштунов относиться ко всем гостям и люди, которые входят свои дома с большим уважением и всегда идут одним говорю.
البشتون والي هو غير مكتوب الديمقراطية والاجتماعية والسياسية والثقافة ، والقانون والايديولوجية للمجتمع البشتون ، ورثت من أجدادهم والناقل للجيل الحالي باعتباره رمز القانونية والأخلاقية التي تحدد النظام والمسؤوليات الاجتماعية.
ومن قديمة “ميثاق شرف” الذي ينتمي إلى قبائل البشتون في أفغانستان وباكستان ، بما في ذلك مجتمعات البشتون في جميع أنحاء العالم. البشتون احتضان قديمة التقليدية والروحية ، والهوية الطائفية مرتبطة مجموعة من القواعد الأخلاقية وقواعد السلوك التي تتسم بالمرونة والديناميكية ، التي تتضمن المبادئ الحديثة والقديمة.
تمكنت هذا النظام جميع الشؤون الاجتماعية والداخلية للمجتمع الباشتون قبل الإسلام وبعده. وقد أنشأت الحكومات المحلية الصغيرة والكبيرة في وسط وجنوب آسيا ويمارس اجتماعيا من قبل الأغلبية.
البشتون والي يشجع احترام الذات والاستقلال والعدالة ، والضيافة ، والحب والتسامح والانتقام والتسامح تجاه الجميع ، ولا سيما إلى الغرباء والضيوف. كل هذه مدونات قواعد السلوك التي تساعد في الحفاظ على الشيكات الاجتماعية والأخلاقية والتوازنات داخل المجتمع البشتون. وهو يعتبر مسؤولية شخصية كل من البشتون لاكتشاف وإعادة اكتشاف جوهر ومعنى الولي البشتون.
لمدة 8 قرون ‘تشكيل حكومة قومية الباشتون السياسية المركزية لأول مرة في القرن 12th ، وأنشأ ثم تشكيل حكومة مركزية قوية في منتصف القرن 18.
وشارك جميع المجموعات الصغيرة والكبيرة والقبائل العرقية في إصلاح وتحسين الإدارة الحكومية وفي كافة جوانبه الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية. مع تعزيز العلاقات بين هذه الجماعات العرقية في الشؤون الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ، تحولت إلى قومية الباشتون القومية الأفغانية.
البشتون والي هو حجر الأساس الأول ، الباشتون القومية في المرتبة الثانية والقومية الافغانية هي المرحلة الثالثة والتطورية للبنية السياسية.
الرموز هي ؛
* الإيمان — الثقة في الله (المعروف باسم “الله”) مفهوم الثقة في الخالق واحد.
* خاطرة جيد ، جيد الكلمات ، الصالح — من الباشتون يجب أن نسعى دائما نحو التفكير الأفكار الجيدة ، والكلام جيد والعمل الصالح.
* سلوك — يجب أن تتصرف باحترام البشتون تجاه جميع المخلوقات بما في ذلك البشر والحيوانات والبيئة المحيطة بهم. تلوث البيئة و / أو تدميرها هو الولي ضد البشتون.
* الوحدة — فوق يتكلمون لغات ، وفوق أنها تبقي الدم ، وفوق مبلغ من المال لأنها تحقق ، البشتون والي يوحد البشتون كشعب واحد في جميع أنحاء العالم. حيث هناك وحدة وطنية حقيقية ، كل جهد ممكن لفكك منهم لن تؤدي إلا إلى تعزيز وحدة لديهم. ماذا يحدث لاحد — يحدث للجميع.
* المساواة — كل رجل هو على قدم المساواة. كل رجل يريد القول في مستقبله وقال انه سيدافع عن حقه في أن يكون رأيه مسموعا. ويجب على جميع الناس على التعامل بالتالي مع بعضها البعض ، مع الكياسة والاحترام السليم أو لا يجوز لأحد أن تفرض إرادتها على آخر.
* الضيافة والملاذ — كوني مضيافة للجميع ، وخاصة للضيوف ، حتى أشد الناس عداوة للأعداء أيار / مايو (إذا طلبت) أن توفر الملاذ واللجوء أو الحماية وكذلك المواد الغذائية والمساعدات الأخرى.
* العدل والغفران — إذا كان أحد الأخطاء عمدا آخر ، ضحية الحق ، بل واجب ، للانتقام من هذا الظلم في نسبة متساوية. إذا كان قد ظلمت عمدا واحدة لك ، وأنك لم السعي لتحقيق العدالة وليس للظالم أطلب منكم الصفح وظيفته ، ثم الدين ، ويعود إليكم من له / لها ، والتي يمكن أن تتحقق العدالة إلا مرة واحدة (من خلال فعل وقدمت الانتقام أو قرار من مجلس جيرغا) لتعويض الخطأ القيام به.
* الأخوة والثقة — في اعتقادهم بأنه ينبغي زميل موثوق بها الاخوة البشتون أو الأخوات وساعدت إلى أقصى حد ممكن.
* الشرف — يجب أن البشتون المحافظة على استقلاله وكرامة الإنسان. الشرف وأهمية كبيرة في المجتمع وأهميتها البشتون جدا للحفاظ على شرف واحد أو الفخر.
* احترام الذات — يجب أن يكون الأفراد احترام أنفسهم والآخرين من أجل أن تكون قادرة على القيام بذلك ، لا سيما انهم لا يعرفون. احترام تبدأ من البيت ، بين أفراد الأسرة والأقارب.
ولا بد من دعم الفقراء والضعفاء ، وتحدى — * التراحم والتعاون. يجب أن يكون من المفضل لإدراج الإقصاء. للدفاع ضد الجماعات الاستبداد والفاشية والتفاني والعمل على أول الذكية ويصعب بعد ذلك.
* الأسرة — يجب أن يمجد العائلة تحت قناعة مقدسة من مسؤولية وواجب مع احترام وزوجات بناته ، والشيوخ والآباء والأزواج والأبناء.
* ونحن عائلة واحدة — يجب أن يهتم لزميل البشتون. قد يكون هناك المئات من القبائل ، ولكن لديهم مصير واحد في الاتحاد مع بعضها البعض.
* المعرفة — البشتون طلب العلم الهدف في الحياة والفن والعلوم والثقافة ، والتي تعتبر الفواكه التي يمنحها الله.
* تاريخ البشتون — يتم وضع قيمة كبيرة في المآسي البشتون والتاريخ والانتصارات. أنه يعلم البشتون “للحفاظ على عقل منفتح ، لمواصلة البحث عن الحقيقة ، والكثير منها قد اختفت تحت التاريخ نفسه”.
* محاربة الشر — الشر هو في حالة حرب مستمرة مع جيدة. يجب محاربة الشر والخير يجب أن تنتصر على الشر. ومن واجب البشتون لمحاربة الشر عندما كان عليه أن يأتي وجها لوجه معها.
* الصدق والوعد — هو معروف من الباشتون لحفظ وعودهم وصادقة في جميع الحالات والأوقات. وسوف البشتون صحيح أبدا كسر عودهم.
* الضيافة والبشتون معاملة جميع الضيوف والناس الذين يدخلون بيوتهم مع احترام كبير ودائما من جانب واحد قائلا.
پشتون ولی ایک الکھیت جمہوری ، سماجی و سیاسی کلچر کے قانون ، اور شیروانی معاشرے کے نظریے ، ایک قانونی اور اخلاقی کوڈ کہ سماجی نظام اور ذمہ داریوں کا تعین کرتا ہے جیسا کہ موجودہ نسل کو ان کے باپ دادا اور پیشے سے وراثت میں ملا ہے.
یہ ہے کہ افغانستان اور پاکستان کے پشتون ہی کے لئے ہے ، دنیا بھر میں پختون کمیونٹی سمیت ایک قدیم “عزت کے کوڈ” ہے. پشتون ایک قدیم روایتی روحانی ، گلے ، اور اجتماعی تشخص کی اخلاقی کوڈ اور طرز عمل کے قوانین کا ایک سیٹ ہے کہ لچک دار اور متحرک ہے ، قدیم و جدید اصولوں پر مشتمل سے بندھا ہوا.
اس نظام سے پہلے اور اسلام کے بعد پھتون معاشرے کے تمام سماجی اور اندرونی معاملات میں کامیاب رہی ہے. یہ وسطی اور جنوبی ایشیا میں چھوٹی اور بڑی مقامی حکومتوں کو پیدا فرمایا ہے اور اسے سماجی طور پر اکثریت کی طرف سے عمل کیا جاتا ہے.
پختون ولی خود عزت ، آزادی ، انصاف ، مہمان نوازی ، محبت ، معافی سب کی طرف سے بدلہ ، اور رواداری کو فروغ دیتی ہے ، اجنبی اور مہمانوں کے لئے خاص طور سے. سب کاموں سے یہ کوڈ پشتون معاشرے میں سماجی اور اخلاقی چیک اینڈ بیلنس کو برقرار رکھنے میں مدد مل رہی ہے. یہ ہر پشتون کے ایک ذاتی ذمہ داری پر غور کرنے کی تلاش ہے اور دوبارہ پشتون ولی جوہر اور معنی کی تلاش.
‘8 ویں صدی کے لئے پھتون قوم پرستی 12th صدی میں پہلی بار ایک سیاسی مرکزی حکومت قائم کی اور پھر اس کے وسط 18th صدی میں ایک مضبوط مرکزی حکومت قائم کی.
تمام چھوٹی اور بڑی قبائل اور نسلی گروہوں سے حکومت انتظامیہ کی اصلاح اور بہتری میں اور اس کے مختلف اقتصادی ، سماجی اور ثقافتی پہلوؤں میں حصہ لیا. سماجی و اقتصادی امور میں ان نسلی گروہوں کے درمیان تعلقات کو مضبوط کرنے کے ساتھ ، پھتون قوم پرستی افغان قومیت میں تبدیل کر دیا گیا تھا.
پھتون قوم پرستی پشتون ولی کے پہلے سنگ بنیاد ہے ، دوسری ہے اور افغان قوم پرستی کے سیاسی ڈھانچے کے تیسرے اور ارتقاء کے مرحلے میں ہے.
کوڈ کر رہے ہیں ؛
* عقیدہ — خدا (کے طور پر “اللہ” کہا جاتا ہے) ایک خالق ہے میں یقین کے خیال میں یقین کرتا ہوں.
* اچھے خیالات ، بہت اچھا کلام ، نیک اعمال — ایک پختون ہمیشہ اچھی سوچ ، اچھے الفاظ بولنے اور نیک اعمال کرتے رہے طرف جہاد کرنا ہوگا.
* برتاؤ — پشتون لوگوں ، جانوروں اور ان کے ارد گرد کے ماحول سمیت تمام مخلوق کی طرف احترام سے پیش آنا چاہیے. ماحول کی آلودگی اور / یا اس کی بربادی پشتون ولی کے خلاف ہے.
* وحدت — زبانوں میں انہوں نے خون کے وہ رقم جو وہ کرتے کے اوپر رکھنا ، ، پختون ولی کو دنیا بھر میں ایک قوم کے طور پر پشتونوں کو متحد کرتی اوپر بات ، اوپر. جہاں سچ یکتا ، ہر درمیان پھوٹ ڈال ان کے اتحاد ان کے پاس مضبوط بنانے کے لئے صرف خدمت کرے گا کرنے کی کوشش ہے. ایک ساتھ کیا ہوتا ہے — سب کو ہوتا ہے.
* مساوات — ہر شخص کے برابر ہے. ہر شخص چاہتا ہے ایک اس کی مستقبل میں کہیں اور انہوں نے اپنے حق کی لڑائی ہے اس کا قول سن لیا جائے گا. سب لوگ ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ اس لئے مناسب كياسة یا احترام اور نہ ایک دوسرے کے لئے پر ان کے گا مسلط کر سکتے ہیں ایک سے نمٹنے چاہئے.
* ہوسٹنگ اور حرم — ہونے کے ناطے سب سے نواز ، اور مہمانوں کے لئے خاص طور سے ، یہاں تک کہ دشمن کے سب سے زیادہ دشمن ہے (اگر مانگا) کر سکتے ہیں حرم سے پناہ کا ، یا حفاظت کے طور پر خوراک اور دیگر امداد فراہم کی جائے.
* انصاف اور بخشش — اگر کسی کو جان بوجھ کر ایک دوسرے پر ظلم کیا ، شکار کا حق بھی ایک ذمہ داری ، برابر کا تناسب میں اس ظلم سے بدلہ لینے کی ہے. اگر کسی کو جان بوجھ کر آپ پر ظلم کیا ہے ، اور آپ کو انصاف حاصل نہیں کیا اور نہ ہی ظالم آپ کو اس کی بخشش ہے ، تو ایک قرض ہے ، اس کی طرف سے تم پر واجب الادا طلب / اس کے ، جس میں صرف ایک بار انصاف کیا جا سکتا ہے ایک ایکٹ کے ذریعے پورا کیا ( بدلہ یا جرگہ کونسل کے فیصلہ) کو غلط کیا بدلہ فراہم کی گئی.
* اخوان المسلمون اور اعتماد کی — یہ عقیدہ ہے کہ ساتھی پشتون بھائیوں یا بہنوں اور پر اعتماد ہونا چاہئے سب سے زیادہ ممکن حد تک مدد فراہم کی.
* عزت — پشتونوں کو ان کی آزادی اور انسانی وقار کو برقرار رکھنے چاہئے. جج صاحب پشتون معاشرے اور اس کے بہت سے اہم میں بڑی اہمیت ہے ایک اعزاز یا فخر برقرار رکھنے کے لئے ہے.
* خود احترام — افراد کے لئے ایسا کرنے کے لیے ، خاص طور سے ان لوگوں کو وہ نہیں جانتے کے قابل ہوں خود کو اور دوسروں کا احترام کرنا چاہئے. عزت گھر میں خاندان کے رکن اور قریبی رشتہ داروں میں سے ہوتی ہے ،.
* ہمدردی اور تعاون — غریب ، کمزور ، اور چیلنج کی حمایت کی جائے گی. انکلوژن اخراج کو ترجیح دی ہوگی. کرنے کے لئے ظلم ، فاسیواد اور پر سرگرم گروپوں کے خلاف اپنا دفاع اور کام کرنے کی زبردست پہلے اور پھر مشکل.
* خاندانی — خاندان کی ذمہ داری اور ذمہ داری کے ایک بیویوں ، بیٹیوں ، بزرگوں ، ماں باپ ، بیٹے ، شوہر اور اس کے لئے احترام کے ساتھ مقدس کی سزا کے تحت پاک کرنا ہوگا.
ساتھی پشتون کے لئے دیکھ بھال ہوگا — * ہم نے ایک خاندان ہے. وہاں قبائل کے سینکڑوں ہو ، لیکن وہ ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ اتحاد میں سے ایک کی قسمت ہو سکتا ہے.
پشتون زندگی ، فن ، سائنس اور ثقافت کے مقصد علم ، جو خدا کی طرف سے عطا کی پھل سمجھا جاتا ہے طلب — علم *.
* پشتون تاریخ — عظیم قیمت پشتون تاریخ تراسدیوں ، اور فتوحات میں رکھا جاتا ہے. یہ پشتون سکھاتا ہے “کے کھلے دل رکھنے کے لئے ، حق کی تلاش جاری رکھنے کے لئے ، بہت سے جن کی تاریخ ہی کے تحت موجود ہے”.
* برائی سے لڑو — شیطان اچھا کے ساتھ مسلسل حالت جنگ میں ہے. شیطان اور ہو لڑے گا اچھا نقصان پر ضرور غالب ہو. یہ ایک پشتون ہی برا لڑنے کے لئے جب وہ / وہ اس کے ساتھ آمنے سامنے آتا ہے فرض ہے.
* ایمانداری اور وعدہ — ایک پشتون اپنے وعدے رکھنے اور تمام حالات اور اوقات میں ایماندار ہونے کی وجہ سے جانا جاتا ہے. ایک سچا پشتون اپنا عہد توڑ ڈالتے کبھی نہیں ہوگا.
* ہوسٹنگ پشتون تمام مہمانوں اور لوگ بہت احترام کے ساتھ ان کے گھروں میں داخل ہوا اور ہمیشہ ایک طرف سے کہہ جانے کا علاج.
Population: The world’s population tripled from 1950 to 2010 and is now nearly 7 billion. There are 57 million more men than women, but in most countries there are more women than men.
Health: Women die more often from heart disease than men, and they constitute a majority of all HIV positive adults in Africa South of the Sahara in North Africa and the Middle East. 70% of the world’s poorest people who live on less than 15 million days are women.
Illiteracy: 2 / 3 of 774 million illiterate adults are women and this is the same number as 20 years ago. 72 million children do not attend school and 39 million (54%) are girls.
Professional life: Gender gap in employment is still high in all ages. Women are mainly employed in the service sector and part-time work is common in industrialized countries. Women also spend twice as much time on housework as men and it is estimated in both paid and unpaid work, women work longer hours than men, half of the country’s minimum standard for maternity leave and 2 of 5 meets the standards for financial compensation.
Power and political participation: There are 20 female heads of state in the world and only 23 countries have more than 30% female MPs. 13 of the 500 largest multinational companies have female executives.
Violence: Violence against women is a universal problem. Between 15 % and 71 % of women reported physical or sexual violence by a husband or partner. Many women said that their first sexual experience was not consensual. (24 % in rural Peru, 28 % in Tanzania, 30 % in rural Bangladesh, and 40 % in South Africa). Between 4 % and 12 % of women reported being physically abused during pregnancy.
Every year, about 5,000 women are murdered by family members in the name of honour each year worldwide. Trafficking of women and girls for forced labour and sex is widespread and often affects the most vulnerable.
Forced marriages and child marriages violate the human rights of women and girls, yet they are widely practiced in many countries in Asia, the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa.
The district is located to the North-East of Lashkar Gah district some 130 Km (three and half-hours drive) away. To the West is New zed district, to the East is Zamindawar district, in North is Baghran district and in South is Sangin district. According to the shura the district is divided into 5 clusters (Landi Nawa, Sharega, Kunjeck Nawa, Khuja and Nedaam Nawa). The district has a total of 220 villages (20 large, 200 small villages). Musa Qala River flows into the district from its Northwest. Kanjeck Nawa is the main village and also the seat of the government departments. Temperature reaches 30C in summer and winters are very chilly.
PROVINCE: Helmand Geo-Code 23, DISTRICT: Musa Qala Geo-Code 2304, Population in 1990: Setlled: 45,905, Refugees in Pakistan: 9,680, Refugees in Iran: 6,200
Ethnical Data: 100% Pashtuns (Alizai Tribe which is a section within Group of Pashtun tribes are in good majority & have strong hold in the region).
It is the hub of Afghan Opium trade in Helmand Province which a major opium producing state of Afghanistan. Being the economic backbone of Taliban & the major centre of the related activity it has always remained on frontlines with the NATO forces & Taliban militia, In 2007 the town was the epicentre of the famous & most fierced battles fought by ISAf & Afghan National Army popularly known as the battle of Musa Qala code named operation Sankepit by US Marines. It was one of the large scale war operation faught with Taliban Militia till now. It was also the first battle where Afghan National Army was directly involved & had fought after its formation since the fall of Taliban regime. The infrastructure is in shembles & hardly any facilities are in place for the local population.
Majority of the houses are made of mud, with domed roofs, surrounded by mud walls & rest have wooden roofs. No Sanitation & Drainage system is in place. Though the area has sufficient water resources but the Water potability is a major issue. Though wells & hand pumps are being installed & contructed by few NGOs’ working there but the situation is still not normal.
The condition of Farmlands is very poor. After the prolonged drought the soil fertility has been deteoriated. Now only 30% is cultivable where before drought it was 70%. Due the shortage of irrigated water, fertilizers, seeds the agriculture is hard to revive to a booming stage. The major crops whih can be grown & supported are Wheat, Maize, Barley & Tobacco.
Even after the US Invasion & ouster of Taliban the situation is not so different. Afghans specially needs to uderstand their rights & international community have to see the actual development being done for the welfare of the local people & where the funds are being utilised. Since its been already a long suffering of the peopl of Afghanistan. And now they cannot afford to waste their blood for no good receiving little for their own betterment. Government has to have develop a policy framework where the community can be supported on a greater scale & results can be seen in minimal time period.
Yusufzais are one of the largest Pashtun tribes. The majority of the Yusufzai tribe resides in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. And now sindh as URDU speaking. They are the predominant population in the districts of Dir, Swat, Mardan, Malakand,Swabi, Buner, Shangla and in Mansehra and Battagram, they are known as Sawati. Other Yusufzai colonies can be found in the inner city of Sialkot and Lahore, arriving in the 13th century. There is also a Yusufzai clan of Dehwar tribe in the Mastung district of Balochistan who speak Persian with some mixture of Birahvi words. The name Yusafzai originates from Yusuf who was the younger son of Manday along with his elder brother Omar. Both died young and left behind only one son Mandanh. The descendants of Yusuf inhabit Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, and Malakand while the descendants of Mandanh live in Swabi and Mardan. The closest neighboring trive to the Yusufzai’s are the Alizai. Yusafzai speak the northern variant of “Pukhtu” with the hard “kh” replacing the softer “sh” of southern Pashtun tribes.
History: They migrated from Kandhaar when Mirza Ulugh Beg was governor. He succeeded his father, Shah Rukh, who was a son of Timur (Taimur-e-Lang), in 1446 A.D. In the time of Babur, who first came to Kabul in 1504 A.D., Peshawar had been colonized by Afghan tribes, such as the Swatis and Dilazaks. On his second visit, fourteen years later, he found the Yusufzais had spread into Swat. The current settlement of the Yusufzais must have come about after this time.
The Yusufzai took much of their current lands from the Afghan Dilazaks and Swatis, after a single decisive battle fought on the plains between the villages of Gadar and Langarkot. Babur helped subdue the tribes fighting the Yususfzais, using matchlocks for the first time against the Jahangiri sultan, Mir Haider Ali Gebri of Bajour. In previous battles the armies of Babur where never able to defeat the Yusufzai. In one instance Babur sent an army of 100,000 against the Yusufzai with elephants only to have the entire army almost completely routed.
The Yusufzai tribe came to Swat in approximately 1450 and began fighting with the Pushtun tribes of Afridi, Swati and Dilazak. After several bloody battles between the Tanolis and the Yūsufzai, Tanoli Sultan Ameer Khan was killed while fighting with the Yūsufzai at Topi (near Swabi). The Tanolis were pushed to the eastern bank of the Indus. The Yusufzai tribes ruled northern India for centuries. The British army tried to take control of the Yusufzai parts of northern India but were defeated. The Yusufzai have fought the British in the 18th and 19th century, especially the clans of Swat and Black Mountain of Hazara. The battle of Ambela, Sura took place in 1863. Bakht Khan Rohilla (1797–1859) was the nominal Commandar-in-chief of Indian rebel forces in the Indian Rebellian of 1857 against the British East India Company. He too was a Yusufzai.
Demography: Three sections of the tribe, the Hassanzai, Akazai and Chagharzai, inhabit the west slopes of the Black Mountain, and the Yusufzai country stretches to the Utman Khel territory. The population demographics of Yusufzais is unknown but there are more than 3 million Pashtu speaking Yusufzais. The main districts of Yousafzais are Mardan,Malakand, Swabi and Dargai. The large populations of this tribe are also found in Northern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Small proportions in Burma, Nepal.
Badakhshan is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, consisting of 28 districts. It is located in the north-east of the country, between the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya. It is part of the Badakhshan region. Badakhshan’s name was given by the Sassanids and derives from the word badaxš (an official Sassanian title). The suffix of the name means the region belonged to someone with the title badaxš (analogous to Azerbaijan, Isfahan, Tehran, etc.). Feyzabad is the capital of Badakshan Province. Badakhshan is primarily bordered by Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and Khatlon Province in Tajikistan to the north and east. In the east of the province a long spur called the Wakhan Corridor extends above northern Pakistan’s Chitral and Northern Areas to a border with China. The province has a total area of 44,059 km², most of which is occupied by the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges. Badakhshan was a stopover on the ancient Silk Road trading path, and China has shown great interest in the province after the fall of the Taliban, helping to reconstruct roads and infrastructure in the province.
Economy: Despite massive mineral reserves, Badakhshan is one of the most destitute areas in the world. Opium poppy growing is the only real source of income in the province and Badakhshan has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, due to the complete lack of health infrastructure, inaccessible locations, and bitter winters of the province. Recent geological surveys have indicated the location of other gemstone deposits, in particular rubies and emeralds. Exploitation of this mineral wealth could be key to the region’s prosperity.
- The following Pamiri languages are spoken in Badakhshan by certain populations of Tajiks:
- small Kyrgyz minorities
- nomadic and semi-nomadic Uzbeks and Pashtuns, who migrate over long distances.
The residents of the province are largely Sunni, but many of the Tajiks who are speakers of one of the Pamiri languages in the northeastern districts of the province are Ismaili.
Helmand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the southwest of the country. Its capital is Lashkar Gah. The Helmand River flows through the mainly desert region, providing water for irrigation. Helmand is the world’s largest opium-producing region, responsible for 42% of the world’s total production.This is more than the whole of Myanmar, which is the second largest producing nation after Afghanistan. Afghan opium would account for more than 90% of the global supply. The Helmand valley region is mentioned by name in the Avesta (Fargard 1:13) as Haetumant, one of the early centers of the Zoroastrian faith, in pre-Islamic Persian times. However, owing to the preponderance of non-Zoroastrians (Hindus and Buddhists), the Helmand and Kabul regions were also known as “White India” in those days. Some Vedic scholars (eg. Kochhar 1999) also believe the Helmand valley corresponds to the Sarasvati area mentioned in the Rig Veda as the homeland for the Indo-Aryan migrations into India, ca. 1500 BC. Much of the fighting between NATO and Taliban forces is taking place in this province and Helmand is said to be a Taliban stronghold.
Border with Pakistan
Helmand has a southern border with the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Many domestic and international observers have criticized Pakistan’s efforts towards securing the border against Taliban insurgents.
- Lashkar Gah
- Musa Qala
The population is 1,441,769 and the area is 58,584 square kilometres. Pashtuns are the majority (92% of the population), and there are also Balochs who are concentrated in the south, as well as smaller minorities of Hazara, Brahui and Tajik, who live mostly in Lashkar Gah.
The picturesque Ferghana Valley is located in the eastern part of Uzbekistan where the Timurs’ ruled & where the first Mughal King of India Babur lost his Empire; is the land which he loved the most & remebered till his death , the description of this serene heaven was also noted in his famous book Babur Nama. It is the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan, with almost a third of the country’s population. The diamond-shaped valley is 300 km from east to west and 170 km from north to south.
The mild climate of the Ferghana Valley allows a growing season of 240 days per year. The primary emphasis on the production of cotton, silk and other agricultural crops has turned a large part of the valley into an oasis. With nearly 25,000 sq. km of fertile land, it is a great oasis surrounded by the Kuramin mountain range in the North-West, Chatkal mountain range in the North, Ferghana mountain range in the East, and the Alai and Turkestan ranges in the South. There is scarcely a hectare of uncultivated land, the primary crop being cotton. In ancient times, the exceptional flora of the region gave the Ferghana Valley the name “Golden Valley”.
The Ferghana Valley is divided into five regions: Ferghana, Andijan, Namangan, Khojand (located in Tajikistan) and Osh (located in Kyrgyzstan). The Ferghana Valley is rich in a number of natural resources, including gold, oil, copper and other raw materials. The Sirdarya, one of the great rivers of Central Asia, runs across the valley. It is fed by more than 70 mountain streams. However, most of these streams are diverted for irrigation purposes and do not reach the Sirdarya. A nature exhibit is devoted to the wildlife of the area. Birds, including seagulls, pheasants and crows, are plentiful on the shores of the Sirdarya. The mountains are home to birds of prey, as well as bears, foxes, wolves, jackals, porcupines, badgers and red groundhogs. Several animals in Uzbekistan are included in the “Red Book”, a world-wide list of animals in danger of extinction, which was completed in 1980. It is illegal to hunt these animals. The first ancient settlements in the Ferghana Valley appeared 5-6 thousand years ago. It has been assumed that the Ferghana of the 6thc.-4thc. BC was in cultural contact with Southern and South-Western civilizations. The valley’s richness includes its millennia-old history and the traditions of its master craftsmen in silk, ceramics, woodcarving and a bounty of other ancient arts of humanity.
Wakhan Corridor is commonly used as a synonym for Wakhan, the area of far north-eastern Afghanistan which forms a land link or “corridor” between Afghanistan and China. The Corridor is a long and slender panhandle or salient, roughly 140 miles (220 km) long and between 10 and 40 miles (16 and 64 km) wide. It separates Tajikistan in the north from Pakistan in the south. The corridor was a political creation of the Great Game. On the corridor’s north side, agreements between Britain and Russia in 1873 and between Britain and Afghanistan in 1893 effectively split the historic area of Wakhan by making the Panj and Pamir Rivers the border between Afghanistan and the Russian Empire. On its south side, the Durand Line agreement of 1893 marked the boundary between British India and Afghanistan. This left a narrow strip of land as a buffer between the two empires, which became known as the Wakhan Corridor in the 20th century. The corridor has 12,000 inhabitants. The term Wakhan Corridor is also used in a narrower sense to refer to the route along the Panj River and the Wakhan River to China, and the northern part of the Wakhan is then referred to as the Afghan Pamir.
Although the terrain is extremely difficult, the Corridor was historically used as a trading route between Badakhshan and Yarkand. It appears that Marco Polo came this way. The Jesuit priest Benedict Goëz crossed from the Wakhan to China between 1602 and 1606. In May 1906 Sir Aurel Stein explored the Wakhan, and reported that at that time 100 pony loads of goods crossed annually to China.
Early travellers used one of three routes:
- A northern route led up the valley of the Pamir River to Zorkul lake, then east through the mountains to the valley of the Murghab River, then across the Sarikol Range to China.
- A southern route led up the valley of the Wakhan River to the Wakhjir Pass to China. This pass is closed for at least five months a year and is only open irregularly for the remainder.
- A central route branched off the southern route through the Little Pamir to the Murghab River valley.
As a through route the Corridor has been closed to regular traffic for over 100 years. There is no modern road through the Corridor. There is a rough road from Ishkashim to Sarhad-e Broghil built in the 1960s, but only paths beyond. It is some 100 km from the road end to the Chinese border at Wakhjir Pass, and further to the far end of the Little Pamir.
As Fahad Hussain has once said about Wakhan:
“Once here roamed the kings & angels from the soul
Now left with the twigs played by the horse
Red crystals changed the colors of the white puff
Where the pass remained empty with winds gone bye”
- 1778 – France and the United States signed the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, establishing military and commercial ties respectively between the two nations.
- 1806 – Napoleonic Wars: When squadrons of British and French ships of the line engaged in the Battle of San Domingo (pictured) in the Caribbean Sea, the French ships Imperial and Diomède ran aground to avoid capture, but were caught and destroyed anyway.
- 1959 – Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, filed a patent application for the first integrated circuit.
- 1987 – Mary Gaudron was appointed as the first female Justice of the High Court of Australia.
- 2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen government into exile.
February 5: Constitution Day in Mexico (1917); Kashmir Day in Pakistan
- 1783 – The first of five strong earthquakes hit the region of Calabria in present-day southern Italy, killing more than 32,000 people over a period of nearly two months.
- 1923 – Australian cricketer Bill Ponsford made 429 runs to break the world record for the highest first-class score.
- 1945 – In the Second World War, American General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines nearly three years after his “I shall return” speech.
- 1958 – A Mark 15 nuclear bomb disappeared off the shores of Tybee Island, Georgia, US after it was jettisoned during a practice exercise when the bomber carrying it collided in midair with a fighter plane.
- 1963 – The European Court of Justice’s ruling in Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen established the principle of direct effect, one of the basic tenets of European Union law.
February 4: Day of the Armed Struggle (Angola, 1961)
- 1859 – German scholar Constantin von Tischendorf (pictured) rediscovered the Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th century uncial manuscript of the Greek Bible, in Saint Catherine’s Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai in Egypt.
- 1899 – The Philippine–American War opened when an American soldier, under orders to keep insurgents away from his unit’s encampment, fired upon a Filipino soldier in Manila.
- 1974 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army bombed a motor coach carrying off-duty British Armed Forces personnel and their family members, killing twelve and wounding fifty more.
- 1992 – Venezuelan Army Lieutenant Colonel Hugo Chávez failed in his attempt to overthrow the government of Carlos Andrés Pérez.
- 1999 – The Panamanian-flagged freighter New Carissa ran aground near Coos Bay, Oregon, US, causing one of the worst oil spills in Oregon history.