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Assistant Chief of Jewish community in Kazakhstan met with Editor in Chief of The Oslo Times for Exclusive Interview Session

 

 

 

with jewish head in almatyn

In the image above: (L) Asst; Chief Rabbi of Kazakhstan’s Jews community with (R) Editor in Chief of The Oslo Times Hatef Mokhtar in an exclusive interview session in Almaty.

Almaty, Kazakhstan, December 12 2012 – The honorable Mr Rabbi Bezalel Lifshitz met with the editor in chief hatef mokhtar for an exclusive interview that will be published in a couple of weeks. They spoke about religious freedom, Judaism and the Jewish community in Almaty KZ.
There are approximately 12,000 to 30,000Jews in Kazakhstan, less than 0.2% of the population.

Most Kazakh Jews are Ashkenazi and speak Russian.There are synagogues and large Jewish communities in Almaty where there are 10,000 Jews. According to the National Conference on Soviet Jewry, “Anti-Semitism is not prevalent in Kazakhstan and rare incidents are reported in the press,” contrary to incorrect perceptions in popular culture caused by the country’s portrayal in the 2006 film Borat as a “hot-bed of anti-Semitism.

Rabbi mentioned the 7 commandments for humanity.

In ancient times, these 7 commandments were called “The Noachide Laws.”   They were preached by Noah which all people of the new world were required to follow. (Hebrew)

1 – Do not murder (Shefichat damim).
2 – Do not steal or kidnap (Gezel).
3 – Do not worship false gods (Avodah zarah).
4 – Do not be sexually immoral (engage in incest, sodomy, bestiality, castration and adultery) (Gilui arayot).
5 – Do not utter GOD’s name in vain, curse GOD, or pursue the occult(Birkat Hashem).
6 – Set up righteous and honest courts, and apply fair justice in judging offenders, and uphold the principles of the last five (Dinim).
7 – Do not eat the limb of an animal before it is killed (Ever Min HaChai).

 

TOT News Agency / The Oslo Times

My words and my answer to those who hate me

I am a brave person with a power of confidence and knowledge who have always accepted risk in his life and I have enjoyed standing against extremism. Do what you want to do, do whatever you can do. I am a lion whose nature is to die like a soldier and live like a leader.

Cannibalism a taboo of Man’s evil

Warning: This article contains some disturbing content and images. Viewers discretion is advised.

Cannibalism

From centuries human civilizations have practiced cannibalism – a practice which not only haunts a week hearts but it spreads a dangerous culture which endangers the entire survival of human existence. Almost every tribal culture with few exceptions nurtured and has enjoyed exotic flavors’ of the great human flesh but those who do are unaware that the cuisine they ate is toxic, is full of all those diseases which the person diluting in their intestines will affect their own. Cannibal culture goes in two ways one by killing a person and feasting on him whereas other follows the dead to be eaten by his relatives. The former called homicidal cannibalism while later called as necro-cannibalism. Though the world has come ages and has made strides in science and civilization however the situation in many parts of the world still remains the same.

There are many countries where even now to this date cannibalism is still not consider as sin and is being practiced in some or the other form either in the name of religion or culture or habit.

Tribes which are known to practice cannibalism across the world:

Tribes in Americas practiced cannibalism:

Akokisa – USA

The Akokisa, like the Atakapa, practiced cannibalism, which may have been connected to their religious beliefs. Cannibalistic feasts were described by Simars de Bellisle, who observed them firsthand when Akokisa people captured him when his ship wrecked was Frenchman (1695-1763). His diary was the first hand account of these natives practicing homicidal cannibalism.

Atakapa – USA

The first European contact with the Atakapa may have been in 1528 by survivors of the Spanish Pánfilo de Narváez expedition. The name Atakapa is a Choctaw name meaning “people eater” (hattak ‘person’, apa ‘to eat’), a reference to the practice of ritual cannibalism. The Gulf coast peoples practiced this on their enemies.

A French explorer, Francois Simars de Bellisle, lived among the Atakapa from 1719 to 1721. He described Atakapa cannibalistic feasts which he observed firsthand. The practice of cannibalism likely had a religious, ritualistic basis.

The French historian Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, lived in Louisiana, from 1718 to 1734, a total of 16 years. He wrote:

Along the west coast, not far from the sea, inhabit the nation called Atacapas [sic], that is, Man-Eaters, being so called by the other nations on account of their detestable custom of eating their enemies, or such as they believe to be their enemies. In the vast country there are no other cannibals to be met with besides the Atacapas; and since the French have gone among them, they have raised in them so great an horror of that abominable practice of devouring creatures of their own species, that they have promised to leave it off: and, accordingly, for a long time past we have heard of no such barbarity among them. —Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz

 

Harakmbut – Peru

The Harakmbut are an indigenous tribe living in the Peruvian Amazon Tobias Schneebaum an American artist, anthropologist, and AIDS activist has witnessed cannibalism ritual of Harakmbut tribe. Which was mentioned as about him “After hitch-hiking from New York to Peru, he lived with the Harakmbut people for seven months, where he slept with his male subjects and claimed to have joined the tribe in cannibalism on one occasion”.

Wari – Brazil

The Wari also practiced cannibalism, specifically mortuary cannibalism. This is a form of endo-cannibalism, or the consumption of members of one’s own society. This was done as a form of utmost respect to those who have passed.

Tribes in Europe practiced cannibalism

Androphagi – Russia

Androphagi (Greek: for “man-eaters) was ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (according to Herodotus), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnepr and Don. These people may have assisted the Scythians when King Darius the Great led a Persian invasion into what is now Southern Russia to punish the Scythians for their raids into the Achaemenid Empire.

The Gutasaga tells of the blóts on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea: Before this time, and a long time thereafter, they believed in groves and barrows, sanctuaries, and sacred enclosures and in the pagan gods. They sacrificed (for?) their sons, daughters and cattle, and practiced blóts with food and drink. This they did due to their superstition. The whole country (the althing) had the largest blót with sacrifice of people, otherwise everything had its blót and smaller things had smaller blóts with cattle, food and drinks. They were called food-, or cooking-brethren, because they prepared the meals together.

Tribes in Asia practiced cannibalism

Asmat – New Guinea

Until the 1950s, their remote and harsh location isolated the Asmat from other peoples. It was not until the mid-20th century that they came into regular contact with outsiders. Initially, the Asmat had a reputation as headhunters and cannibals, and were left undisturbed.

Fore – Papua New Guinea

In the 1950s the neurological disease Kuru was discovered in the South Fore. The local tradition of ritual cannibalism of their dead had led to an epidemic, with approximately 1000 deaths from 1957 to 1960. Upon the death of an individual, the maternal kin were responsible for the dismemberment of the corpse. The women would remove the arms and feet, strip the limbs of muscle, remove the brain and cut open the chest in order to remove internal organs.

Shirley Lindenbaum, one of the early kuru researchers, states that kuru victims were highly regarded as sources of food, because the layer of fat on victims who died quickly resembled pork. Women also were known to feed morsels – such as human brain and various parts of organs – to their children and the elderly.

It is currently believed that kuru was transmitted among the South Fore through participation in such cannibalism, although opportunistic infection through wounds when removing infectious tissue from the corpse can be assumed to be another cause, as not all cases can be explained by ingestion of infectious tissue.

Though the Fore would not eat those who had apparently died of disease, and so did not so easily catch other diseases via cannibalism, they believed that kuru was a mental affliction caused by a curse rather than a physical disease.

The kuru epidemic reached its height in the 1960s, having recorded over 1,100 deaths of the South Fore from kuru between 1957 and 1968. The vast majority of victims among the South Fore were women. In fact, eight times more women than men contracted the disease. It later affected small children and the elderly at a high rate as well.

Lindenbaum and Vincent Zigas worked among the South Fore in New Guinea trying to identify and catalog the symptoms and possible behavior causing the disease. Daniel Carleton Gajdusek also traveled there in 1957, to study disease patterns in indigenous and isolated populations.Lindenbaum, Zigas, and Gajdusek were all crucial to explaining the specifics of kuru to the rest of the world.

Although the prohibition of cannibalism in the 1950s led to the steady decline of the epidemic, it has lingered into the present century by an incubation period that can exceed 50 years.

Issedones – Central Asian countries

The Byzantine scholiast John Tzetzes, who cites the Issedones generally “in Scythia” present day Central Asian Region, quotes some lines to the effect that the Issedones “exult in long flowing hair” and mentions the one-eyed men to the north. According to Herodotus, the Issedones practiced ritual cannibalism of their elderly males, followed by a ritual feast at which the deceased patriarch’s family ate his flesh, gilded his skull, and placed it in a position of honor much like a cult image.

The archeologists E. M. Murphy and J. P. Mallory of the Queen’s University of Belfast, have argued (Antiquity, 74 (2000):388-94) that Herodotus was mistaken in his interpretation of what he imagined to be cannibalism. Recently-excavated sites in southern Siberia, such as the large cemetery at Aymyrlyg in Tuva containing more than 1,000 burials of the Scythian period, have revealed accumulations of bones often arranged in anatomical order. This indicates burials of semi-decomposed corpses or defleshed skeletons, sometimes associated with leather bags or cloth sacks. Marks on some bones show cut-marks of a nature indicative of defleshing, but most appear to suggest disarticulation of adult skeletons. Murphy and Mallory suggest that, since the Issedones were nomads living with cattle herds, they moved up the mountains in summer, but they wanted their dead to be buried at their winter camp; defleshing and dismemberment of the people who died in summer would have been more hygienic than allowing the corpses to decompose naturally in the summer heat. Burial of the dismembered remains would have taken place in fall after returning to winter camp, but before the ground was frozen completely. Such procedures of defleshing and dismemberment may have been mistaken for evidence of cannibalism by foreign onlookers.

Murphy and Mallory do not exclude the possibility that the flesh removed from the bodies was consumed. Archeologically these activities remain invisible. But they point out that elsewhere, Herodotus names another tribe (Androphagi) as the only group to eat human flesh.

On the other hand, Dr. Timothy Taylor points out:

  • 1. Herodotus reports that the so-called “Androphagoi” are the “only” people in the region to practice cannibalism. However, a distinction should be drawn between “aggressive gustatory cannibalism” (i.e., hunting humans for food) and the ritualized, reverential practices reported among the Issedones and Massagetae.
  • 2. Scythian-type peoples were renowned embalmers and presumably would have no need for funerary defleshing to delay decomposition of the corpse.
  • 3. Herodotus specifically describes the removal of the meat and mixing it with other foodstuffs to make a funerary stew.

Dr. Taylor concludes: “Inferring reverential funerary cannibalism in this case is thus the most academically cautious approach”.

Kombai – Indonesia

The Kombai are known to have practiced cannibalism in the past, as part of their culture. The Kombai also believe in evil spirits called Suangi. Suangis are said to eat the blood and/or internal organs of their victims and then stuff the bodies with leaves and grass. They are also believed to devour the person’s soul. After being attacked, the victim is then said to return home where they seem to have fallen mysteriously ill. If a victim is able to name the Suangi that has attacked him, they are often killed and eaten by the victim’s family in the belief that it will free the person’s spirit. The Kombai also believe in Khakhua-Kumu, evil men who consume the souls of their victims, and must be killed or eaten in return.

Korowai / Kolufo – Papua New Guinea

Korowai tribe in Papua, Indonesia is known as the tribes that still remaining in the world and performs cannibalism until now. They usually eat his tribe member suspected of being witches. Usually they eat while still in a state of his brain warm. Their residence, usually located above the tall tree is useful to protect from their enemies.

Marind-animPapua New Guinea and Indonesia

Marind-anim are people living in South New Guinea, in the past, they were famed because of headhunting. This was rooted in their belief system and linked to the name-giving of the newborn. The skull was believed to contain a mana-like force. Headhunting was not motivated primarily by cannibalism, but the already killed person’s flesh was consumed.

Massagetae – Uzbekistan

According to Herodotus:  Each man has but one wife, yet all the wives are held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae and not of the Scythians, as the Greeks wrongly say. Human life does not come to its natural close with this people; but when a man grows very old, all his kinsfolk collect together and offer him up in sacrifice; offering at the same time some cattle also. After the sacrifice they boil the flesh and feast on it; and those who thus end their days are reckoned the happiest. If a man dies of disease they do not eat him, but bury him in the ground, bewailing his ill-fortune that he did not come to be sacrificed.

Sawi – Indonesia

The Sawi are a tribal people of Western New Guinea, Indonesia. They were known to be cannibalistic headhunters as recently as the 1950s.

Tribes in Africa practiced cannibalism

Beti-Pahuin – Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe

The Beti-Pahuin’s exact origins are unclear. At one point, they were thought to have migrated into the territory of present-day Cameroon from the Azande area of Sudan, but the current belief is that they originated in the forests south of the Sanaga River, not far from their current territory. During this process, the migrants encountered other ethnic groups. The invaders were militarily superior, however, and (possibly aided by a reputation for cannibalism), they were able to absorb and “Pahuinise” most of the indigenous groups they encountered. Those peoples who refused or resisted assimilation had no choice but to flee.

Tribes in Oceania practiced cannibalism

Māori – New Zealand

Maori in New Zealand is a tribe of cannibals who have documented very well. Cannibalism had been a part of Maori culture, and they never stop to eat their enemies. When the British ship, the Boyd, anchored and the crew killed the son of the head of the Maori, the Maori warrior take revenge by killing and eating 66 crew of the ship. This event is finally known as the “body massacre.”

Countries where cannibalism is being followed and is practiced in this 21st century:

Most of the countries to this exclusive and distinct club include some of the most prospering and largely underdeveloped ones where even today as well this heinous and inhuman practice is contributing to their platter. These countries are mostly in continents of  Africa and Asia with have two exceptions of two from Europeans: they are: India, China, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Guinea, Liberia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Nigeria, Rwanda, Ukraine, Germany, Polynesia, Melanesia, Australia. In these countries there are lots of similarities as well as dissimilarities. One can get a complete detail content of the reasons why in these countries it is still practiced and people still love to live their cannibal values.

India

Cannibalism in India has existed from thousands of centuries or one can say since times unknown. Here in India there are three groups which practice this act.

Aghoris – This is sect of religious Hindu splinter holy men who believe that if they eat human meat they will get immortality. They also believe that eating human flesh prevents ageing. One can find them near cremation grounds or near banks of river Ganges where they grab the floating dead bodies and enjoy their feast. They drink from human skulls and always carry bones and skulls with them.

Naga – This is a warrior tribe found in the North Eastern state of India – Nagaland. They still practice necro-cannibalism where the dead members are eaten by his relatives or family within the close quarters of their four walls. Earlier this tribe has also practiced homicide cannibalism but due to the abolition of tribal laws and advanced transformation of their life styles in the modern India they have discontinued this practice as now their no tribal wars or any intrusions made by other communities to grab their ancestral lands which used to the norm before independence.

Hopi, Zuni and Peublo communities also practice some part of cannibalism while performing cremation rituals.

There are other tribal communities like Andaman’s, Manipuri, Mizo, Jaintya, Bodo, Garo, Khasi, Tripuri who on some or the other occasion sometimes practice this un-natural behavior of cannibalism. All these tribes are found in the Indian states of North East and Andaman – Nicobar Island Group.

China

This is the most bizarre and has most weird eating habits in the world. Here cannibalism is not an act but a platter or is a scientific form of an exclusive range of human cuisines. In some parts of China girls are sacrificed and eaten to please God and their ancestral spirits. These girls are mostly of early teenage and before they are slaughtered their hands and legs are tied first and their mouth sealed by the plastic tape. Being helpless in front of those werewolves’ they witness their own homicide. After slitting their throats their bodies are left in the open so that the remaining blood flows out of the body naturally. The blood during the slitting of the throat is collected in the deep vessel which will be later use for performing rituals. Their bodies hare hanged upside down and then the cannibals begin the process of skinning and cleaning of the internal organs.

Fetus soup is delicacy in China and it is liked by many people over there from decades. Many says that this new kind of cannibalistic culture of eating fetus or aborted babies was started due to the rigid and harsh one child policy which force couples to abort their babies or even abandon them premature sometimes. These babies are then become the main ingredient for soup which is liked by millions of Chinese.

Here are some relevant reports and stories about this bizarre world – We posted once an article about how the Japanese simulated eating a human body as a form of edgy entertainment. Well now there are reports that the Chinese have been eating infant babies in an attempt to improve their health and beauty.

The Next Magazine, a weekly publication from Hong Kong, is reporting that infant fetuses have become a popular health and beauty supplement in China. It is further reported that in Guangdong, the demand for gourmet body parts is so high, that they can even be purchased directly from the hospitals.

It is reported that during a banquet hosted by a Taiwanese businessman, a servant Ms Liu from Liaoning province on the mainland inadvertently revealed the habit of eating infants/fetuses in Liaoning province and her intention to return for the supplement due to health concerns. The Taiwanese women present were horrified.

Ms Liu also disclosed that even though people can afford the human parts there are still waiting lists and those with the right connections get the “highest quality” human parts, which translates to the more mature fetuses. A male fetus is considered the “prime” human part.

Ms Liu then escorted the reporter to a location where a fetus was being prepared. A woman was chopping up a male fetus and making soup from the placenta. During the process, the woman even tried to comfort everyone by saying, “Don’t be afraid, this is just the flesh of a higher animal.”

In fact, in China, reports about meals made from infant flesh have surfaced from time to time. A video is on the Internet for people to view. In the introduction, the Chinese claim that eating a human fetus is an art form.

On March 22, 2003, police in Bingyan, Guangxi Province seized 28 female babies smuggled in a truck from Yulin, Guangxi Province going to Houzhou in Anhui Province. The oldest baby was only three months old. The babies were packed three or four to a bag and many of them were near death.

On the morning of October 9, 2004, a person rifling through the garbage on the outskirts of Jiuquan city in the Suzhou region, found dismembered babies in a dumpster. There were two heads, two torsos, four arms, and six legs. According to the investigation, these corpses were no more than a week old and they had been dismembered after cooking.

Although China has laws that prohibit the eating of human fetus, the regime’s forced abortions to ensure the one child policy is strictly adhered to thereby creating many opportunities for these sorts of atrocities to occur.

Thailand

A favorite tourist destination and a glittering hub of sex trade have seen its people being cannibal sometime to satisfy their bizarre of this taboo. In 2009 there was a case when Thai people of Sawang Pae Paisarn Foundation in the distant corner of this country killed a Nigerian and was eaten by them after cooking all his dissected body parts and was distributed among all those who have participated in this act of insane anthropophagi. However the truth is something else their pictures of removing flesh from body were a religious act which was performed by the members of this foundation and with the help of volunteers were intercepted with pictures of cooking lunch by some members at the same location. This ceremony in Thailand is called Lang Pa Cha which is performed when the cemetery gets filled up having no more space to accommodate dead bodies further. This ceremony is mostly held during the summer season from March – May. So, in order to ease out the cremation process in the already squeezed and of small sized cremation chamber they clear the entire flesh from the skeleton and dissect it followed by rituals. The remaining flesh also goes into cremation chamber but after cremating the cleaned skeletal. This is a Buddhist practice and is carried in almost all the Buddhist faith countries like China and other South Pacific countries and even Sri-Lanka.

This controversy was so heightened that letters were sent to the Thai Ambassador to Nigeria in Abuja and even to Barack Obama. Many protests were carried out by the furious African community and even African Union too protested. One can find read out the entire comments and conversation carried published in http://www.southernspeakers.net/2009/09/cannibalism-in-thailand.html in a statement and answer to this circulating controversy which had almost destroyed the diplomatic relations between the two nations was cleared by the Thai Embassy The Royal Thai Embassy in Abuja yesterday said the compact discs, magazines and other materials in circulation, alleging that some Thai nationals were eating human parts were false and should be discountenanced.

The embassy said in a statement that the images being circulated were taken at a ritual called, “Lang Pa Cha” or cleaning of the cemetery in Prachuab Khiri Khan Province between March and May.

The circulation of the materials, including calendars, CDs and magazines on the streets of Lagos and other cities, has unsettled many Nigerians who have relations in Thailand. This followed the impression that the blacks in the country were the targets of the cannibals.

But the Thai Embassy said the images were only manipulated to generate ill-feelings.

According to the statement, the ritual was usually carried out on dead bodies which were dug up to create more space for new deaths.

The statement reads in part: “When dug up, the bodies, which have not been claimed by any relatives will be cremated according to Buddhist rites. As their bones are cremated, their flesh has to be dissected before the cremation.”

“The embassy said the images circulated were that of volunteers assisting in the cremation.”

Nigeria

A Tribe called Yoruba is indulge in the human flesh trade and even there are reports of cannibalism in the Eastern Nigeria where enjoy having human meat. Body parts and its trade are booming in Nigeria because of high rate of superstition and demand by witch doctors. Bodies which are unclaimed or did not found any place in cemetery or left partly cremated contribute majority of the volume of this flourishing business. There are open markets where one can buy fresh or stored human meat and its body parts. Here are the details from which one could have an idea about its norms and existence Lagos – A Nigerian man has been arrested after he killed a woman and ate her stewed intestines in a bid to cure an abnormally persistent Attention, police said on Wednesday.

A spokesperson for Osun state police said 50-year-old Folorunso Olukotun had led officers to his victim’s disemboweled body in the bush near his home village in south-west Nigeria.

“According to the man’s story, his private organ always has an Attention and it doesn’t go down,” Oluwole Ayodeji said. “Someone advised him to kill a woman and eat her intestines.”

Olukotun ambushed his victim, a woman in her forties unknown to her attacker, on a path near her village. He attacked her with a machete, killed her, and took her intestines home, Ayodeji said.

‘He seems to have believed them’
“He cooked them like a sort of stew and ate them with pounded yam,” he said. “When the police arrived he was very open, we have his whole confession on tape and he has been remanded in custody.”

The spokesperson said that police believe that someone had jokingly suggested cannibalism as a cure for Olukotun’s problem, in the belief that he would never carry out such a killing.

“He seems to have believed them,” he said. Police could not say whether the Attention has now subsided. – Sapa-AFP

http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=68&art_id=qw1022058361787B252&set

Directly an enemy was slain, his head – and sometimes his body, if the people were strongly cannibalistic – was taken to the village and a great dance given, either at once or after the skull has been cleaned of its flesh by boiling, or by being buried for a time in the ground. At the feast, every man-slayer of the village danced round, generally with a skull in one hand and his machete in the other. Sometimes the body of the enemy was brought in whole; sometimes it was cut in pieces in advance to facilitate transport. It was then boiled in native pots and shared out, occasionally among the man-slayer’s family and friends, but sometimes among all the people of the village, until it was wholly consumed. In some tribes it was forbidden for women and children to partake of human flesh; in others, for example among the Kalabari, the eldest sister of the hut was forced to taste it, however strongly she might protest.

Among the Abadja, the whole body of anyone slain was ordinarily taken back to the village and there consumed, though it was tabu to eat women or children. A man only divided his ‘kill’ among his own family. The body was cut up and cooked in pots; the fingers, palms of the hands, and toes were considered the best eating. Sometimes, if a family had been satisfied, part of the body would be dried and put away for later.

When an Nkanu warrior brought a head back, everyone who heard of the deed gave him a present, and much palm-wine was drunk. The trophy was boiled, and the flesh cut away. The skull was then taken out, accompanied with all the others in the village, and the flesh was then boiled and eaten.

Much cruelty was practiced among certain of these tribes. For example, the Bafum-Bansaw, who frequently tortured their prisoners before putting them to death? Palm-oil was boiled in a big pot, and then by means of a gourd enema it was pumped into the bowels and stomachs of the prisoners. This practice was said to make the bodies much more succulent than they would otherwise have been. The bodies were left until the palm-oil had permeated them, and then cut up and devoured.

P. A. Talbot, Southern Nigeria, Clarendon Press, 1926 (3 vols.)

Every moment, men, women and even children passed me. One would be carrying a human leg on his shoulder; another would be carrying the lungs or the heart of some unfortunate Kroo-boy in his or her hands. Several times I myself was offered my choice of one of these morsels, dripping with gore.

Father Bubendorf of Freiburg, an eye-witness to the slaughter of a group of captives outside the hut of a tribal chief, Onitsha, Nigeria, c. 1921

The Two Congo’s (DRC and ROC)

Marauding rebels were massacring and eating pygmies in the dense forests of north-east Congo, according to UN officials who are investigating allegations of cannibalism in Ituri province, where fighting between several rebel groups has displaced about 150,000 people in the past month.

Many of the displaced tell of rebel fighters capturing and butchering pygmies, Manoddje Mounoubai, spokesman for the UN ceasefire monitoring mission in Congo, said.

The UN had sent six officials to investigate the accusation as well as other human rights abuses, he said.

Other UN officials in the capital, Kinshasa, and the eastern city of Goma said that widespread cannibalism had already been established.

‘Ituri is completely out of control and cannibalism is just the latest atrocity taking place,’ said one, who asked not to be named until the investigators deliver their report. ‘Perhaps this will finally alert the world to what’s going on.’

Ituri’s forest-dwelling pygmy tribes have been caught between opposing groups supporting the government and Ugandan-backed rebel groups in the last battles of Congo’s four-year civil war.

The two Ugandan-backed movements routinely enslave pygmies to forage for forest food and prospect for minerals, a UN official said.

Hunters returning empty-handed were killed and eaten.

Sudi Alimasi, an official of the pro-government group Rally for Congolese Democracy-ML, said it had begun receiving reports of cannibalism from people displaced by fighting more than a week ago.

‘We hear reports of [enemy] commanders feeding on sexual organs of pygmies, apparently believing this would give them strength,’ he said.

‘We also have reports of pygmies being forced to feed on the cooked remains of their colleagues.’

Cannibalism has re-emerged throughout eastern Congo as the last vestiges of colonial influence have been eroded during the war. Much of the vast forested area is controlled by the Mayi-Mayi, a loose grouping of tribal militias united by their magical beliefs and taste for human flesh.

On a recent assignment in eastern Congo the Guardian correspondent saw many Mayi-Mayi fighters wearing parts of the bodies of their Rwandan enemies, in the belief that this would make them invincible.

‘We are hearing reports of untold horrors in Ituri,’ said Wyger Wentholt, of Médecins sans Frontières.

Report by James Astill in Nairobi, The Guardian, 9 January 2003

In Democratic Republic of Congo rebel fighters of Hema and Lendu tribes are known to practice the homicidal cannibalism to weaken and frighten the enemy. No-one was spared in the Congo civil war and even now as well the bitter truth continue to exist and being practiced.

Examples and evidences of cannibalism in other African countries:

Liberia – Today’s practice of ritual killings in Liberia – because it still exists! – Mainly is a combination of traditional beliefs which inspire men-eating and modern-day criminal behavior of unscrupulous politicians who consider their ambitions worth more than the life of their victims. During the 14-year civil war (1989-2003) there were so many cases of gunmen – some of them child soldiers – eating their victim’s hearts and other body parts that the Catholic Church issued a formal denunciation of these practices (Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy, 1999: dust-jacket?)

“Nor was it just teenage fighters who held the idea that they could have access to spiritual power through the consumption of human flesh, or at least by a ritual use of human body parts. Most interesting is the allegation concerning (President) Charles Taylor himself made by his former defense minister, Tom Woewiyu. “We saw a lot”, said Woewiyu, describing his time as Taylor’s right-hand man, “including the formation of a group of cannibals called Top 20. Taylor is a member of this group. Human sacrifices, under the direction of his uncle Jensen Taylor, take place in Taylor’s house.” A group of sixteen NPFL (Taylor’s army) generals and fourteen Special Force commandos made similar allegations concerning Taylor. They issued a formal statement affirming that “we …. stand in readiness to testify Taylor’s ritualistic killings of our peers.” Ellis concludes: ‘True or not, such claims are widely believed’ (Ellis, 1999: p. 264).

These accusations caused Charles Taylor to legally pursue Stephen Ellis. After the British Times newspaper repeated the allegations in its review of Ellis’ book (‘The Mask of Anarchy’ – see Sources) President Charles Taylor started a libel case against Ellis but he withdrew it, early 2001, allegedly because of the high cost of pursuing the case in London. Given his immense wealth, it is more likely that Taylor was afraid of being requested to come to London and testify before court, an action which would have made him vulnerable and susceptible of arrest which human rights groups were asking for because of his crimes against humanity. (The Guardian: 2 February, 2001).

Many more cases could be cited that sadly confirm Liberia’s reputation in the area of ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present. Ritualistic killings and cannibalism. The Liberian evolution of the traditional belief which lies at the basis of ritual killings is a particular one, as will be shown. Let us look at the past before turning back to the present.

Sierra Leone – During civil war majority of the lives were lost not because of the fighting but by cannibalism. It was practiced to spread terror and to keep the captive rebels or prisoners away from the severe interrogations done by mercenaries or British Army or SAS. Here is the account of it which explores the rampant cannibalism in Sierra Leone the mercenaries encountered while waging war there and the international efforts to shape the nation and its neighbors…

CAPE TOWN, South Africa –”There is a lot of cannibalism in Sierra Leone,” said Bert Sachse, a 34-year veteran of the South African Special Forces and commander of the mercenary war during the mid-1990s in the troubled West African nation.

“If you capture the enemy, you want to interrogate them. For the Sierra Leone army, they wanted to eat the heart and or other vital organs of their enemies. We would have to fly out the prisoners we wanted to interrogate on the helicopters back to Freetown so they wouldn’t be eaten. The MI-17 would fly over and the Sierra Leone soldiers would look up and say, ‘There goes dinner.’ They would look upset. In certain parts of Sierra Leone cannibalism is rife.” Sandline and Executive Outcomes were the mercenary organizations, located in South Africa and London, for whom Sachse and his men worked.

Another Sandline soldier interviewed by WorldNetDaily commented, “One can only image the Sierra Leone soldiers eating the heart and other organs of an RUF prisoner. I have a mental picture of a soldier holding a heart in his mouth, and another eating a hand and Bert Sachse asking them, ‘How many times do we have to tell you not to eat the prisoners before we interrogate them? Didn’t you get the memo?'”

Continued Sachse: “When Kabbah came back, he had about 20 of the Sierra Leone army staff executed right in front of us. He said there was some kind of conspiracy. One of those executed was a military commander with whom Sandline/Executive Outcomes had worked quite closely. What could you do? The Nigerian peacekeepers executed them.”

It was not Breaker Morant with a cigarette and one round.

“They tied them up to trees and mowed them down. Guys got chopped. They were dead or dying and the Nigerians would call for more magazines of ammo,” explained Sachse while waving his arms to show how the Nigerians called for more ammo during the executions.

Sachse lamented the chaos so prevalent in African armed forces, saying, “Some soldiers in Africa were paid with bags of rice. A sergeant major might get five bags of rice, but another soldier with more children might get only one bag of rice and that would lead to bad morale. The Sierra Leone army was a bloody rabble. The SADF was efficient. It all started with the Rhodesian army. Minimum casualties and maximum effect.”

Uganda – Few people outside Uganda know that in the north the government is fighting a fanatical and murderous cult – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) – whose fighting force is made up in large part of abducted children. Up to 95 per cent of the population in these areas has been forced from their homes by the war. Nearly two million Ugandans, out of a population of 24.7 million, now live in refugee camps for fear of being attacked and killed in their villages.

Children have told how they had been forced by the rebels at gunpoint to abduct and murder other children and to drink their blood. A former commander of the rebel group explained that he had forced villagers to chop up, cook and eat their neighbours before he killed them, too.

On 20th September 2008 a 33 year old Sowedi Kimera has been arrested in Uganda on suspicion of cannibalism. Police raided Kimera’s Kireka home on Thursday after being alerted to a corpse on the premises.

Mr Kimera was arrested in the early hours of Thursday morning after residents and Local Council officials tipped the Police of an unidentified body in his house. Police say they searched the house on Wednesday evening and discovered the body of a woman in Kimera’s living room, they traced Kimera to a local bar and arrested him on suspicion of cannibalism. Local residents attempted to lynch Kimera as he was taken into custody.

The dead woman found in Kimera’s home is believed to be Annet Mbabazi, a resident of Kireka. Mr Kimera reportedly checked her body out of the town morgue on Wednesday night, but he gave no explanation as to how or why he took the body.

Fiji – Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes was quite rampant and very much part of everyday life. During the 19th century, Ratu Udre Udre is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement.  According to Deryck Scarr (“A Short History of Fiji”, 1984, page 3), “Ceremonial occasions saw freshly killed corpses piled up for eating.’Eat me!’ was a proper ritual greeting from a commoner to a chief.” Scarr also reported that the posts that supported the chief’s house or the priest’s temple would have sacrificed bodies buried underneath them, with the rationale that the spirit of the ritually sacrificed person would invoke the gods to help support the structure, and “men were sacrificed whenever posts had to be renewed” (Scarr, page 3). Also, when a new boat, or drua, was launched, if it was not hauled over men as rollers, crushing them to death, “it would not be expected to float long” (Scarr, page 19″). Fijians today regard those times as “na gauna ni tevoro” (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles, in turn Fiji was unknown to the rest of the outside world. “Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals”.

Germany – Armin Meiwes is a German man who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary victim whom he had found via the Internet. After Meiwes and the victim jointly attempted to eat the victim’s severed penis, Meiwes killed his victim and proceeded to eat a large amount of his flesh. Because of his acts, Meiwes is also known as the Rotenberg Cannibal or Der Metzgermeister (The Master Butcher). Though he was arrested in 2002 but he committed this act in 2001 when he got his reply to his advertisement posted on some internet site now defunct. An Italian Bernd Jürgen Brandes then answered the advertisement. As is known from a videotape the two made when they met on 9 March 2001 in Meiwes’s home in the small village of Rotenburg, Meiwes amputated Brandes’ penis and the two men attempted to eat the penis together before Brandes was killed. Brandes had insisted that Meiwes attempt to bite his penis off. This did not work and ultimately, Meiwes used a knife to remove Brandes’ penis. Brandes apparently tried to eat some of his own penis raw, but could not because it was too tough and, as he put it, “chewy”. Meiwes then fried the penis in a pan with salt, pepper, wine and garlic; he then fried it with some of Brandes’ fat but by then it was too burned to be consumed. He then chopped it up into chunks and fed it to his dog. According to journalists who saw the video (which has not been made public), Brandes may already have been too weakened from blood loss to actually eat any of his penis. Meiwes read a book for three hours, while Brandes lay bleeding in the bath. Meiwes apparently gave him large quantities of alcohol and pain killers, twenty sleeping pills and a bottle of schnapps, kissed him and finally killed him in a room that he had built in his house for this purpose, the Slaughter Room. After stabbing Brandes to death in the throat, he hung the body on a meat hook and tore chunks of flesh from it; he even tried to grind the bones to use as flour. The whole scene was recorded on the two-hour video tape. Meiwes enjoyed eating the body over the next 10 months, storing body parts in his freezer under pizza boxes and consuming up to 20 kilograms (44 lb) of the flesh. According to prosecutors, Meiwes committed the act for sexual enjoyment. Meiwes has admitted what he did, and expressed regret for his actions. He added he wanted to write a book of his life story with the aim of deterring anyone who wants to follow his steps. Websites dedicated to Meiwes have appeared, with people advertising for willing victims. “They should go for treatment, so it doesn’t escalate like it did with me”, said Meiwes. He believes there are over 100 cannibals in Germany. What was shocking was that cannibalism in not a sin as per Germany code of law.

Ukraine, Russia and CIS

Ukraine – On July 15, 2002, police in the central Ukranian town of Zhytomyr said they have arrested three men and a woman on suspicion of murdering and cannibalizing up to six people, including an 18-year-old girl. “They killed a young woman in a forest and then cut out fleshy parts of the body and ate them. This is horrible,” a police spokeswoman told the Reuters news agency. In what is believed to have been a satanic ritual, the suspects killed the 18-year-old with two knife thrusts to the heart, local interior ministry representative Viktor Kurbatov told the press. She was also scalped and decapitated. Then the suspects boiled her head in water and ate pieces from it. The cannibal crew was arrested several days after the murder when they went to meet the girl’s parents to collect a $3,000 ransom.

Crimea – In March, 1996, police in the Crimean city of Sebastopol were called to investigate a murder. Nothing had prepared them for the carnage they discovered when they entered the home of a former convict and found the mutilated remains of human bodies being prepared for eating. The flat’s owner, her mother and her boyfriend, had been stabbed to death by the 33-year-old suspect and their bodies neatly butchered. In the kitchen investigators found the internal organs of two victims in saucepans, and nearby on a plate a freshly roasted piece of human flesh.

Finnish soldiers displaying Soviet soldiers’ skins near Maaselkä, on the strand of lake Seesjärvi during Continuation War on the 15th of December in 1942. Original caption: “An enemy recon patrol that was cut out of food supplies had butchered a few members of their own patrol group, and had eaten most of them.”

Perestroika– Alarmingly, cannibalism is becoming way of life in the former Soviet Union. In the 1996 ten people were charged with killing and eating other people. Police estimate that at least 30 people were eaten that year.

Newspaper reports across the former Soviet Union Republics speak of cases of vagrants being eaten, or their bodies being cut up and sold to unsuspecting passers-by. “We have information about cases where human flesh is sold in street markets; also when homeless people kill each other and sell the flesh. Every month we find corpses with missing body parts.”

An apocryphal story — which may or may not be true — relates how two winos fed a buddy human flesh. The man ate with great appetite, but when he learned the true source of the meal, he hanged himself.

Siberia – In 1996 a man in the Siberian coal mining town of Kemerovo was arrested after he admitted killing and cutting up a friend, and using his flesh as the filling for pelmeni, a Russian version of ravioli which, coincidentally, is the favorite dish of the Yeltsin family. The scam was uncovered when rag-pickers scavenging through a garbage dump discovered a severed human head. Soon they discovered that the rest of the body had been minced, put into pelmeny, and sold at cut-price prices in the local market.

Kirgizstan – Russia’s most industrious cannibal, Nikolai Dzhurmongaliev is believed to have killed up to 100 women, and served many of them to his dinner guests. Nikolai used at least 47 of his victims to make ethnic dishes for his neighbors in the Kyrgyzstan. When arrested Nikolai pointed out that two women could provide enough delicate meat to keep him going for a week.

Prison – Twice last year convicts in overcrowded prisons killed and ate their cellmates because they claimed they were hungry and wanted to relieve overcrowding. Criminal experts said that most cases of cannibalism in Russia were part of the general rise of serial killings, and because of Russia’s mounting economic and social problems.

Barnaul – Offering no other explanation than not wanting to share his cell, Andrei Maslich, 24, strangled his fellow prisoner and then cut out his liver with a shard of broken glass. He put the organ in a mug with water and boiled it up on a makeshift fire made from his bedding. Standing in the defendant’s cage in the court room, Maslich admitted to drinking up his homemade stew. The next morning, part of the shrunken organ was found in the mug.

Maslich, a four-time convicted murderer, was initially given his first death penalty last year after he and another inmate strangled, cooked and ate another prisoner. Then they told authorities they were bored and wanted to visit Moscow, where they thought they would be sent for psychiatric examinations.

Kazakhstan – In the Semipalatinsk prison in Kazakhstan, four convicts — who blamed their actions on newspaper articles about instances of cannibalism in prison — decided to eat the very first “new guy” placed in their cell. So when a convict named Volchenkov showed up, they killed him, cut meat from his arms and back, cooked it up, and ate it. Some pieces were fried on a hot plate and some of were boiled in an electric kettle.

Kzyl Orda – A man guarding a pot field in Kzyl Orda region of Kazakstan confessed to shooting and cannibalizing his comrade. The suspect, identified only by the single name Zhusaly, salted the flesh of his buddy and ate it for 10 days. The man — along with three farmers charged with growing the pot — was arrested in a drug raid. The three also have been charged with concealing murder.

Berezniki – The grim discovery of cannibalism in Perm Oblast unfolded when Citizen K. brought to the police station a package of human flesh. He had bought it on the street. His wife, having studied the piece, discovered skin on it. Specialists say that the taste of “people meat” is a specific one, and has a distinctive smell when it’s cooked. “The taste of a victim,” it is asserted, in full seriousness, at the Main Criminal Investigations Administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, “depends on the victim himself: if he drank or smoked a lot, whether he liked sweets or salt…”

F.A. Boldyshev and his friend N.V. Ostanin, got drunk with a third man, A.P. Vavilin, and killed him. Then they dismembered his corpse and had one of their mother’s cook the choice cuts. After gladly gorging themselves, they packed up the remains and sold them in the street. Vavilin’s head, hands, and feet were thrown into the attic. In custody the lethal trio confessed they did it so to save money on the purchase of normal food.

The Urals – Anatoly Dolbyshev, a resident of Berezniki in the Urals region of Perm, was found guilty of stabbing to death a friend of his mother’s in a fight. He was also charged with “swindling and appropriation of property through deceit,” when he cut up his victim’s body and sold pieces of the human flesh to unsuspecting local townsfolk in exchange for vodka. Police arrested Anatoly when one buyer found a strip of human skin in the meat.

Moscow – Citizen Kolpakov from Nizhnyy Novgorod, a lodger of a rooming house, was killed by the son of the woman who owned the apartment. The killer cut a piece of soft tissue from the forearm, fried it in a frying pan, and ate it. A panel of experts found him to be of diminished responsibility.

Marshal Tukachevensky Street – Moskovsky Komsomolets, Moscow’s most popular daily, reported a grisly finding on Marshal Tukhachevksy Street. A beggar rummaging for food through the rubbish bins finds a human foot and several other body parts. Police called to the scene found more evidence of murder: four hands, four shoulders and three feet, all female. “It became clear to the detectives that they were dealing with not one, but two murders,” the newspaper reported.

Chuvash Autonomous Republic – On July 3, 1997, the supreme court of Russia’s Chuvash Autonomous Republic sentenced Vladimir Nikolayev, 38, to death for killing and cannibalizing two people in the town of Novocheboksary. Nikolayev, denounced as a particularly dangerous criminal ten years before, was being arrested in his apartment in the winter of 1996 when police found a pan of roasted human meat on the stove and another cannibal dish in the oven. In the snow on his balcony Nikolayev had more bodies’ part stored to eat later. Investigators who questioned Nikolayev said he had jokingly asked them to prepare him a dinner using his stock of human meat.

Novokuznetsk – In a one man crusade to cleanse modern Russia from the permissiveness of democracy, Sasha Spesivtsev, 27, killed at least 19 street children who he saw as the detritus of society. The unemployed black marketeer would lure his homeless victims from the streets and local train stations in the Siberian town of Novokuznetsk to his home where, with the help of his mother, he killed and ate them.

Udmurtian – In a settlement of Novyy, two men — Rasskazov and Bobylev — were charged with killing and eating their drinking partner Alekhin.

In a stream outside Novokuznetsk, 43 bone fragments were found of six bodies — four boys, one girl, and one man. The criminologists have a theory: A whole family was done away with. But in order to “establish genetic identity,” it was necessary to conduct a special analysis of the bones. And the Internal Affairs Ministry official in charge of the case says, “These preserved bones have lain in my refrigerator for a month already, waiting for the chemicals. Special preparations are very expensive…”

Mantorovo – Situated on a tributary of the Volga, Manturovo is a quiet town of 22,000, where two women — Valentina Dolbilina, a 36-year-old mother of a four-year-old boy, and Vitaly Bezrodnov, 28, a factory worker — were accused of killing their drinking partner and then cooking his flesh.

After a night of heavy drinking, Bezrodnov announced he was hungry and “would like some meat”. After checking out one of their drinking buddies who was dead drunk in the corridor, they decided he was too skinny and packed him off home. Their gluttonous eyes then fell on a fourth member of the party, who was a bit fatter. Propelling him into the tiny kitchen, Bezrodnov asked Dolbilina for something heavy. With Dostoevskian inspiration she fetched an axe, and the victim was hit on the head, beheaded, undressed and then cut up into pieces. As Dolbilina held a tray, some 15 pounds of meat was cut from the thigh and rump, and put in the frying pan.

Awakened by the unusual smell of cooking meat, her flatmate, Boris Komarov, came into her room and asked to join the feast. Despite the haze of drink, even he noticed something strange. “It was a bit tough,” he said. He was reassured by Bezrodnov, who said they had killed a stray dog for the pot.

Satisfied by this explanation, Komarov skept eating the leg of man straight from the pan. Little did he realise the full ghastliness of the situation: the dead man was his own brother, Leonid. Even the little boy, Roma, was served a slice of Leonid. The kid later blurted out: “Mummy killed a man and served him up to her friends.”

St. Petersburg – Local cannibal Ilshat Kuzikov liked to marinate choice cuts with onions in a plastic bag hung outside his window. When the police forced their way into his home, they found Pepsi bottles full of blood and dried ears hanging on the wall – his winter supplies. He offered the officers some meat and vodka if they would let him go.

On March 19, 1997, Kuzikov was found guilty of killing three of his vodka drinking buddies and eating their internal organs, and was sent to a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. The confessed cannibal said he killed his first victim in 1992 after inviting him to his flat for a nightcap. Ilshat, 37, said he became a cannibal because he couldn’t buy enough to eat on his $20 monthly pension. After sating his appetite Kuzikov dismembered his friends and put them in a garbage dump.

During Stalin Rule – Russians have known cannibalism caused by genuine hunger. Due to the brutality of the Soviet Government there have been famines the like of which has not been seen in the West since the 19th century. In 1921 about five million people died in the Volga and Urals region, while the Ukraine was devastated in 1931 during Stalin’s collectivization of the farms. To survive the 444-day siege of Leningrad by the Germans, the defenders ate corpses.

Rostov – The grandfather of Russian-style cannibalism Andrei Chikatilo, believed that his brother had been murdered and his body parts sold during the Ukrainian famine of 1931. In a grim reminder of Andrei’s rampage, in January, 1997, Vladimir Mukhankin, 36, pleaded guilty to murdering eight women in Rostov-a-Don.

There is an association in an isolated Columbian Island republic of Isla Provedencia. Where a person named Perro Loco a self styled prophet and religious leader of the holy church of Dolcett California runs an organization called C&MHFSA – California & Midwest Human Female
Stockman’s Association of whom he says is chairman. He claims to be a supplier of high quality human female meat to various clients in Britain and other European countries. As per his website details he claims that girls volunteer themselves for the snuff video training and they have the option of either to volunteer for butchering or being a breeding sex slave to their owners.

Here is the link to its website: http://web.archive.org/web/20021002102029/http://www.necrobabes.org/perroloco/Previews.html
this is the same website which was used by the German Armin Meiwes where he had posted his advertisement for cannibalistic desire. This association calls human female as their cows which are used who are trained and sent for slaughtering process and even for the porn activities before being slaughtered as show girls. This person has even accepted his daughter’s application for cattle training and slaughtering her.

Opinion: First of all the practice of this heinous act cannibalism whether being practice as ritual, for cremation, for homicide or for just taboo or even for just for sexual pleasure or salvation but it will always be treated as in human and brutal. Whether religion or habit must not be entertain or shouldn’t be encouraged by any. It not only shows the psychological disorders but can cause the spread of severe epidemic like Kuru or even Aids.

Cannibalism is the most dreaded act will always remain the so which can be said otherwise the height of one’s mental disorder or physic. Government should at all cost must ban and regulate the practice of this serious and heinous sin which being a world’s oldest taboo still haunting the people lives in this civilized world showing uncivilized cultural tastes of the cannabis. The countries like Germany and others whether growing or poor must forced their people to keep their selves away from this sort of witch craft practices and destructive self fish practiced pleasures.  Buddhists should not only revive and improve their practice of flesh cleaning before cremation but also discourage others to practice this exorcist’s culture.

Prejudices against Muslims in Modern day USA

Today was a great day as the weather was fabulous with the sun shining warming up Oslo after a long cold winter. I had much to do and headed downtown to Royal Grand Hotel for registration for tomorrow. The Oslo Freedom Forum, a huge human rights seminar is being arranged and tomorrow is the first day of the event. Many human rights activists, politicians and writers are coming to speak and I’m looking forward for it. After the registration, I sat down in a coffee shop to read the daily news as I always do when I came across an article that upset me.

Two imams were on their way to a seminar about prejudices against Muslims or Islamaphobia when they were denied boarding by the pilot as several passengers felt uncomfortable having them onboard as they were dressed in traditional Islamic clothing. The incident happened on an Atlantic Southeast Airlines flight from Tennessee to North Carolina. Masudur Rahman, a professor at the University of Memphis and Mohamed Zaghloul holds high religious positions in the Muslim community had already gone through the security check and were sent back a second time, but this was not enough neither for the passengers or for the pilot who refused to have them on the plane.

This incident sadly reminded me of Rosa Parks, an African-American civil rights activist and the mother of the freedom movement when she refused to obey the bus drivers order to give up her seat and make room for a white passenger. Her arrest and action sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. A great women who had the courage to stand against injustice and to demand her rights on a time where African Americans had to accept their fate as being seen as slaves and not worthy of anything. She lifted the veil of discrimination and urged everyone to boycott the busses.

Racism, discrimination, stereotyping and prejudice

America is a country with many ethnicities and people with different faith and beliefs. A country that have shifted from being discriminating and known for targeting different racial groups throughout the history.

First there was the racism against the Native Americans who had lived on the North American continent for 20,000 years found themselves in wars, massacres, and forced displacements and had their land taken.

Then there is the racism against African Americans who suffered much from the institution of slavery. According to the 1860 US census, there were about 385,000 slave-owners out of approximately 1,5 million white families. There was murder, violence, injustice and much more. The slaves had to do hard labor and had no rights in the society.

Anti-Semitism rise from the 1910s and the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used ‘The Jewish Banker’ in their propaganda. In 1915, Texas-born, New York Jew Leo Frank was lynched by the newly re-formed Klan.

In the 19th century, anti catholic and anti Irish wave’s swept across the country and the poor Irish Catholics who had immigrated in hope for a better life was being discriminated and stereotyped. The anti Catholic view continued until the 20th century when racism continued against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italian-Americans and Polish- Americans) also mainly Catholics. The anti-Catholic sentiment remained nevertheless in the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy who became the US’s first Catholic president.

During World War 1 and 2, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were pointed on as Germany and Italy was the “enemy” countries.

1979, after the Iranian revolution, the US embassy in Iran experienced a hostage crises where 52 US citizens were held as hostage for 444 days. This sparked anti Iran tensions and protesters were out on the streets yelling that the Iranian’s should go home.

Anti Arabism didn’t only target Arabs, but Assyrians, Iranians, Muslim Americans, Sikhs and Hindus. Iranians, who are different then Arabs together with Hindus and Sikhs has been stereotyped as “Arabs”. An example is the case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for “looking like an Arab terrorist” because of his turban that is required in Sikhism as well as the Hindus who has been attacked for “being Muslims” have also suffered after September 11 attacks.

The tensions between the American government and the Arab world together with the September 11 attacks was the turning point in US history and a new expression was born; “Islamaphobia”.

Similarities and differences

There are 3 reasons for all the problems in the world; Discrimination, poverty and ignorance. As long as the people have prejudices against each other, there will never be development and the discrimination will divide more and more people from each other.

We all have similarities and differences. Everyone has a family, a language, and a culture they cherish and all have hopes, dreams, fears, and feelings that are different.
Humans differ physically, such as skin color, hair texture, or gender. Others differences, such as language, customs, and beliefs.

Now Islam is on everybody’s mind and many Americans feel uncomfortable when they see women with a headscarf or a man with Islamic clothing. This incident with the airplane is just one example of many and it concerns me that there is so much prejudice in the world.

Let’s put this in a sharper picture. America is, outside of Israel, the most receptive and tolerant country in the world to Jews but yet, in every year since 9/11, more Jews have been hate-crime victims than Muslims. In 2001, there were twice as many anti-Jewish incidents as there were anti-Muslim, again according to the FBI.

The hate and discrimination develops with the situation in the world. The Catholics and Jews were targeted at one point and now it is the Muslims. There is no accurate count of the number of Muslims in the United States, as the U.S. Census Bureau does not collect data on religious identification but what is clear is that according to CNN news, there are almost 20,000 Americans converting to Islam every year and most of them are women.

It is rather ironic that a country that would discriminate African Americans only a half decade ago has a President that is African American. A country that is seen as a superpower, modernized and civilized can still reject people from basic activities such as entering an airplane just because the person is wearing religious clothing or items. This shows that there is something wrong in the process and to rebuild this will take a long time.

Terry Jones – The insane provocateur

In the last first decade of this century many worst incidents occurred which changed the world’s environment 360 degree. These guerilla attacks gave rise to fundamentalism in every corner of the world after the silence of 60 plus odd years after WWII & Hitler’s holocaust which had fill the world with hatred all around. The fall of WTC ignite the fire of new dimensions of orthodoxies. Once the peaceful & acceptable nature of Christians in the west has now turned anti Islamic fill with hatred with the eyes of discrimination towards the Muslim world. This has now became a major issue for all the nations of the world especially those who have been affected by the so called famed War on Terror which though started as a retaliation by the west to solve this radical mess but now has turned into an eye sore for the world with lives in millions have been lost on both the sides which just broaden a gap between the two theological worlds. If we people are serious to bring peace & harmony in the world then we together have to change our mind sets & follow the path of true light which never differentiate among the creatures of this world. As just the environment heated the events carried out by the `The Florida based pastor Terry Jones announced on July 12th, 2010 that he was planning to burn the Quran on the 9th anniversary of 9/11. The statement caused many protests and condemnations among not only Muslim organizations, but also organizations such as National Association of Evangelicals, German Evangelical Alliance and International Humanist and Ethical Union. President Obama, Hillary Clinton, Anders Fogh Rasmussen and various others gave their negative reaction fearing that the event would cause harm and have negative effect on the foreign security forces. President Obama called the burning event a stunt and urged Jones to not go through with the plans. The fear of the western leaders was right as Jones got the much needed publicity which sparked even the calmest corners in the most disturbed areas of the world costing lives of several innocents & risking more of another hundreds. A pastor is a shepherd used in Old Testament where it denotes that he has a responsibility to guide the herds of knowledge seekers & the followers who are following him for his role in their religion. If the leader started to follow the path which not only against the communal harmony but also denied theologically will not only disturbs the peaceful co existence of all the religions but also give rise to social in difference.

Though previous to 9/11, Jones had negotiation conversations with Imam Mohammad Musri and told him that he would cancel the burning if they would move the planned mosque away from Ground zero since no Americans wanted it there. Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf rejected this statement and said there were no plans of stopping the construction. So the negotiations between Jones and Musri continued and Jones wished to meet with Imam Rauf who did not want to meet “someone who isn’t committed to pursue peace.” Finally after much pressure, Jones announced on September 10th that he was not going to burn the Quran after all, but had no guarantees for the future. And indeed he was right, for after almost 7 months of silence, Terry Jones got his 15 minutes of fame together with the Christian fundamentalist Wayne Sapp when they burned the Quran in a church in Florida March 20, 2011. It is just an insane behavior of Terry Jones who just wants to force his views on others creating a huge divide in already a much divided society which still struggling to stand on its feet for its peaceful survival. Before they burned it, the Quran had to go through a trial as the law states; Innocent until proven guilty. So these 32 people (including some ex-Muslims who have converted to Christianity) found the Quran guilty of a variety of crimes such as murder, rape, deception and being responsible for terrorist activities around the world. The punishment for these crimes was to be soaked in kerosene for an hour and then burned on a barbeque grill in a ceremony lead by Wayne Sapp. This made me think about which haunts they had in Europe and America in the 1400th-1600th century when women and girls were trialed for being witches and of course they would be burned alive on the stake as a punishment. This is completely unjustified of taking Holy book to trail which from ages since its formation has never taught its followers to take laws in their hands, to hate other religions & deny others of their freedom. Every religion & every book of his teachings never taught against the nature of Almighty & the human society. It we who have divided ourselves with greed, hunger, who seeks the social comforts of the changing environment, human civilizations has been a witness to several such incidents where whenever the hate spreads its roots it had just affected those who are the planters of its seeds. Humans harvest only which they sow & the history is the best place to seek into it. If we still not wake up from our self centered theology then the day is not far when we will turn ourselves into a cannibal beast killing the very existence of the small share of the harmony which still lives in our hearts.

Who is Terry Jones?

Jones is a native of Cape Girardeau, Missouri and was born in October 1951. Jones received no academic degree in theology but was given an honorary degree from the unaccredited California Graduate School of Theology in 1983, which now seeks to disassociate itself from him.

In 2002, Jones was fined $3800 by a Cologne court for falsely using the title “doctor” when all he had was an honorary degree from an unaccredited school. And according to the German Evangelical Alliance, Jones was released from the leadership of the Christliche Gemeinde Köln in 2008 due to his indefensible theological statements and his craving for attention and fraud. A leader of the Cologne church said that Jones, “didn’t project the biblical values and Christianity, but always made himself the center of everything.” German press agency Deutsche Presse-Agentur reported that church members said Jones ran the Cologne church like a sect leader and used psychological pressure on members, “subordinating all activities to his will.”

In addition to the church, the Dove World Outreach Center maintains an unaccredited boarding school, called the “Dove World Outreach Academy”. The Gainesville Sun has resembled the academy to boot camp as students are prohibited to have family contact from outside, including attendance at family weddings and funerals. They also work without compensation, selling, packing, and shipping furniture for TS and Company, a business owned by Sylvia Jones, wife of Terry Jones.

In 2009, Terry Jones posted a lawn sign which stated in large red letters “Islam is of the Devil” which also became the title of a book published by Jones in 2010. The signs drew protests by local activists and the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). CAIR responded to another sign which read, “Koran 9:5 Kill the disbelievers wherever you find them.” saying the quote was out of context, and aimed at antagonizing Muslims.

Outcome of the burning

A peaceful protest on April 1st ended up in a bloody attack when 8 people were killed when a group of mob started to attack the UN building in the city of Mazar-e Sharif. There were also many Afghans killed and injured in the protests that have continued every day in Kandahar. To this, Terry Jones has answered that the Church is startled by the outcome but doesn’t feel responsible. The western leaders haven’t said much in order to not give Terry Jones more publicity and attention, but everyone is exited waiting for what will be said and done. Obama has already condemned and referred to the episode as “an act of extreme intolerance and bigotry.” President Karzai did also condemn the episode of burning and the attack on the UN compound but the Afghans is not satisfied as they feel they have been violated in the worst thinkable way. The outcome which was expected & feared by the concerned corners has now resulted in much shame for the west which though always preaches its own terms for peace now left with no reasons to act as a centre for justice & peace of the world. The incidents like Quran Burning & its Trail by Pastor Terry Jones will just increase the already widen fault line where as publicizing these incidents & instead of preventing these events if we promote them & avoid reforming our ideological patterns then fighting for democracy, peace & human rights will be a cheating to the world of innocent people who needs the guidance of our leaders to show them the true path for peace & love, sermon for killing Terry Jones will only give rise to hatred & will promote these events which in reality should not happen & must be prevented by all means & by all religions

Freedom of speech

In a democratic society, burning the Quran goes under the freedom of expression and not something that can be prosecuted in court. The caricatures done several years ago were the symbol of the same; to spread hate and discrimination and violating people’s faith, but the burning of the Quran now was done to offend and nothing else. I have always supported the freedom of speech but freedom of speech does not mean that you can insult other religions, cultures or ethnicities. My common sense tells me that I don’t have to agree with everybody, but I must respect others. It’s very sad that innocent people have to suffer because of an ignorant and extremist man who doesn’t consider the safety of others but rather wishes to have attention. USA must also understand that these kinds of stunts does put US’s image lower in the rest of the world and makes them more isolated and target for terrorist attacks. One ignorant man that doesn’t know what he is doing will cost many innocent people their lives.

So what is the benefit of burning the Quran? Did it make Islam vanish? Did it help him in the cause of “fighting Islam,” or evil as Terry Jones likes to refer to Islam as. If Terry Jones had been a Christian man, he would never have insulted a religion with almost 1.5-1.6 billion followers. Christianity is also a peaceful religion that pursues peace and not hate like Jones do. Christianity does not insult other faiths but gives a message to love with your heart, soul and mind and to love your neighbor as yourself. If he instead of turning on a great turmoil in the world, had tried to pursue towards peace and understanding in a time where people easily gets divided, he would have earned more and probably get the fame he so deeply desired.

In today’s world there is an urgent need for theological reforms in all the religious ideologies & various schools of thought where just only brainwashed fundamentalism exists. The organizations like Dove World Outreach Centre, Madarsas, Institutions & the representatives should think that if someone is doing wrong & is been hurt then they should come forward to aid him not retaliate in a negative manner which not only disturbs the nations image but also puts a big question mark on the efforts of the peaceful & affected corners of the world where even a minor spark of negativism ignites the emotions of the people & puts the lives in danger not only of the locals but also lives of those who are just doing their but to make this world a peaceful place to live. Now the west & east should also initiate a reform process in its Church & Imam system as if they dictate & support reforms across the world & intervene in the national policies of each other’s then they must first rectify the overall theological system of them which has been affected by their own neo external affairs policies & approach.

Churches & Madarsas are the institutions for our respected religions that have never taught violence & have always promoted peace while asking their followers to preach the message of love & harmony not hatred. So, it’s the duty of every human to promote peace & to bring those people to trail who are affecting our society with their orthodox ideologies which do not have any place neither in any religion nor in the world.  If we support freedom of speech as the right for every human then we should also respect that where bearing a responsibility of our own perceptions which not only sour the peace bowl but disturbs the brotherhood of the social nature. Hate speeches & events which support hatred as their core must be prevented or if possible stopped by the authorities responsible for maintaining law n order including those who know of their existence. If something did wrong or gone unjustified by other than it should not be retaliate in the same manner. If our leaders talks about global multicultural society then it is also their duty to protect the dignity of one’s personal society which is free from the dirt of all the radical ideology of orthodox sentiments with no means to serve for the society of their own, creates a world of discrimination which quenches the thirst with the blood of innocent peace makers. Voice is free but not the thoughts which if exposed turns out to be a disaster, so just calms your mind & sees through hearts let see the world with a peaceful thought where there is no violence, hatred & class but just the Almighty which showed always the brighter path.

Fatwa vs Reforms in Indian Muslim Society by Fahad Hussain

Start of war within:

When Indian got independence in 1947 leaders approached evry community to encourage them for their participation in forming proper national constitution. It was the time when few laws & reservations were passed on the demand & requirements of the specifc communities; in this race though suffered & torned apart by the partition Indian Muslim community was still confident that they will make it to the national liberty & will enjoy the social status which this community enjoying from centuries. The thought priviledged section of the Indian society was then started to diminish in environment of nationalism & economic development. Tied in the useless ideologies & reserved vains Muslims contibution to the nation fell drastically & were left behind in the race of community development. When the reforms were introduced it was felt that there will be a massive change in the Muslim society but to no avail. Sikhs improved, Jains Improved, Hindus were raised from their age old boundations of caste system, Christains improved, Buddhists who were just known of their monk culture & traditions were also moved ahead in the society but when nation looked towards its Muslim citizens they were struggling to survive & facing the threat of radicalization. Though every Indian citizen whether he or she has equal rights in the constitution the muslim society at large was never benefited from it. The reason for this is just because the system with in which neither the Islam recognise nor the society have enrooted the community as a whole which have not only affected the development of the Muslims in India but have also pushed them backward positioning them as the least productive society of India.

Muslim Dimise:

Indian constitution recognize the religious education & its system as per religious laws. In just 60 years millions of madarsas have sprunged up across India without having a proper strategy which can streamlined them with the national output, many religious Islamic centers have been formed, Three central universities were exclusively established but the condition remained the same & with little exception it further got deteriorated instead of growing. The major role in the demise of the Indian Muslim society was played by the clerics themselves as they have never accepted the reformed & an influential non muslim society & its culture. Every time they talk about the religious duties but what exactly the rights which Islam gives to its followers were never told clearly & specifically. The conditions now are such that even in centers of their religious sutdies like universities, madarsas, other centres hardly have proper scholars & professional efficiency rate like the education that is given in the madarsas hardly stands out as world requirement. The ideology they are taught about is not fully transparent rather its is more dark & short sighted consising the scholars in the dark world of fundamentalism. Whenever a society wants to move forward & there is a talk of upliftment especially for women their voices started sounding out from the corners of these institutions & the Fatwa is passed without any consideration of proper Sharia & the opinion of the society. They says women should not work, they should not go outside the household, girls education is not important but they never says that women should be uplifted in the society, women must be respected & allowed to work, children at any cost must be send to school, abortions are not allowed, divorces must be prevented, jobless youths should get to work; they never fight against the odds of polygamy which though allowed but on certain rightfull conditions under sharia but now a days has become a way to get more bodily pleasure. Due to their blind perceptions the Islamic society in India has now been divided into many factions or radical school of thoughts having specific ideologies & false histrical proofs. The contidion of Indian Muslim society is deteriorated to such an extent that only 14% of muslims women contributes to the work force in the muslim society national figure is much less even lesser than the other religions, there are only 6% muslims who are qualified enough are working in the public departments. With 34% of the contibution in the national population muslims economic contirbution is hardly 5% in the national GDP. Non of the muslim politician after 1970s has made to better political ministeries. Confined to & oftenly related to their torned vains of Pakistan, muslims just because of their low self esteemed & un acceptable care less perceptions are now being discriminated & are linked to foreign spying agnecies. This has also resulted into a various restructions in their beureucratic promotions & posistional restrictions in the institutions such as like Secret services, Armed Forces, Politics as well as in Private sector too. There is a need of proper social reforms in the Indian Muslim society where every member of it can move & stand shoulder to shoulder with others contributers. The centres of muslim education must be streamlined with the national education system. There is also need of reforms in the clerical system in India where clerics must know about the actual situation of the society & must take decision in more familiar & peaceful manner. Women in Islam always enjoyed the liberty & respect as well as in Indian society too whose law & contitution’s portion also considers & practice many sharia laws & its system exclusively for Muslim society. It is the only constitution in the world which have sections & articles & laws compatible to all the religions.  Fatwa order must be respected & circumstancial position of the society must be understand properly before issuing it. It should not be issued just in case or on the bases of personal opinion but rather it should be issued with the proper consideration of sharia & the local laws which too are compatible with the Islamic Sharia here.

India is a host of many great islamic institutions like for example: Aligarh Muslim University (Asia’s Largest & India’s Oldest Central University), Osmania University, Jamia Milia Islamia, Dar Ul Uloom – Deoband (world’s second largest islamic madarsa & university), Centre & Head Quarters of Bareillvi School of thought – Bareilly, Centre & Head Quarters of Jamait E Islami, Islamic Centre of India, Islamic Research Foundation – India. India is also a host of world’s biggest Waqf Board & has separate Ministry of Hajj. There are also several big deemed universities dedicated to Muslim minority but also exclusively for Islamic education.

سقوط یک دین بزرگ — زرتشتی

منبع :

بنا نهاده شده قبل از 6 قرن پیش از میلاد توسط زرتشت پیامبر بود که در عصر مفرغ از بینایی خود را از اولین Vohu Manah در سن 30 سالگی به دنیا آمد در حالی که گرفتن یک شیب در Daiti رودخانه توسط قادر متعال که Parsis نامیده می شود در زبان خود را به عنوان اهورا مزدا در ایران یا مدرن روز ایران. هیچ اندیشه تناسخ در جسم تازه و برای آنها در آخر زمان باور کن که وقتی جهان دوباره زنده خواهد شد به طور کامل وجود دارد. کتاب مقدس اوستا نامیده می شود در اصل در زبان باستانی ایران نوشته شده است به غیر از روز های مدرن فارسی است. از آن استفاده می شود مذهب در جهان در بزرگترین ساسانی 228BCE قانون زمانی که آن را در اوج خود است که در آن امپراتوری فرم زرتشت به مناطق آسیای میانه ، جنوب آسیا ، شرق میانه و حمایت کرده بود شده بود حتی در افق اندیشه خود را به افزایش اروپا و چین که در آن حتی به این ویرانه روز از معبد خود را در Zinjiang منطقه از چین پیدا شد. با حمله اسکندر مقدونی سوم بزرگ در 330BCE سقوط از عصر زرتشت طلایی آغاز شده که اسکندر حمله ارتش سرنگونی امپراتوری هخامنشی که بعد از آنها سوخته کتابخانه سلطنتی و آرشیو که در آن مقدس متون مقدس اوستا در نگه داشته شدند شکل اصلی توسط پیامبر زرتشت نوشته شده است. فقط کسری از متن زنده می ماند که بعد از آن توسط سازمان کشیش چند از زرتشتی در دوران قرون وسطی زمانی که ایران بود رو به تهدید حمله اعراب که تحت خلافت اموی را سرنگون امپراتوری فارسی بازنویسی شده و به طور کامل اجرا قوانین مختلف از جمله Jizya که حتی ایرانیان مورد استفاده قرار به تحمیل شده بر غیر Zarathushtra و ماموریت های سازمان یافته تبدیل شد به انجام تبدیل غیر مسلمانان به اسلام که در آن پس از قرن 7th آنها با دو انتخاب مانده بود یا به مناطق دیگر مهاجرت بی طرف جایی که آنها دولت قابل قبول تر و یا خود را به دین اسلام .

کتاب مذهبی :
اوستا کتاب مقدس زرتشت مقدس در اصل توسط قدیمی در ایران زبان اوستایی نوشته شده است. پس از از دست دادن آموزش به علت اصلی این حادثه آتش سوزی از کتابخانه سلطنتی توسط تهاجم الکساندر سوم مقدونی فقط کسری از آن جان سالم به در. در طول قرن 7th تحت خلافت اموی کشیش چند از زرتشت سازمان یافته آموزه های زرتشت. در حال حاضر در دسترس متن مقدس دینی است به چندین کتاب هستند که در خط اوستایی نوشته شده است تقسیم شده باقی می ماند تا به امروز هستند گاتها ، Yasna ، Visperad و Vendidad. همراه با این متون عمومی خانواده کتاب اوستا به نام نماز Khordeh ، که حاوی Yashts و Siroza. بقیه مواد را از اوستا نامیده می شود. “قطعات اوستایی” # :. دوم کتاب که در دسترس هستند اما نه کتابهای آسمانی اما آثار مذهبی در قرون وسطی به خط پهلوی نوشته شده است : Denkard ، Bundahishn ، Menog – Khrad من ، انتخاب از Zadspram ، Jamasp Namag ، رسائل از Manucher ، Rivayats ، Dadestan – من – Denig ، و Arda Namag Viraf. همه متون فارسی میانه زرتشتی در طول این مدت نوشته شده هستند با این نسخهها کار ثانویه در مذهب در نظر گرفته شده ، و کتاب نیست. با این حال ، این متون دارای نفوذ قوی در دین است.

آیین و باورها :

Parsis یا زرتشتیان ‘آیا در تناسخ اعتقاد ندارند. در دین زرتشتی جسد میزبان از فروپاشی و یا druj است. تمرین از قرار گرفتن در معرض مراسم فقط توسط Parsis از شبه قاره هند که در آن غیر قانونی است در “برج خاموشان” در حالی که در آن روش های انهدامی دیگر در دسترس هستند زرتشتیان یا سوزاندن یا دفن در قبر است که با ملات آهک cased نیست انجام می شود. ازدواج در خارج از مذهب منجر به اخراج از جامعه است. پذیرش کودک در جامعه تنها در صورتی که پدر است پارسی در غیر این صورت هیچ پذیرش وجود دارد. تمرین هایی از این دست است منجر به کاهش بیشتر از جامعه رنج می برد که در حال حاضر از نرخ مرگ و میر نوزادان بالا از 200 (میلادی) در 1000 (میلادی). با توجه به این اصل صندلی جامعه زرتشتی مستقر در لس آنجلس و پاریس تصمیم گرفته است برای قطع این نوع از سیستم و دعوت یا تشویق زوج را قبول شریک در خارج از ایمان خود. آنها در آب و آتش به عنوان اصلی به دو شکل از زندگی اعتقاد دارند. آیین های پرستش و یا می تواند در وجود هر گونه منبع نور است که درخشش انجام می شود. آتش معبد جایی که فعالیت های مانور مذهبی مانند ازدواج ، خلوص ، ایمان مذهبی مراسم پذیرش برای کودکان و دیگر آیین های مهم روزانه انجام شده است.

جشنواره ها :
Nouruz * ، روز سال نو. در نوع Fasli / باستانی از تقویم زرتشتی ، این روز همیشه روز اعتدال بهاری (اسمی سقوط در تاریخ 21 مارس).
در Shahenshahi و تقویمهای Kadmi ، که کار را برای سالهای کبیسه حساب نیست ، روز سال نو است زیرفشار پیش توسط بیش از 200 روز است. این دو مدل دومی از تقویم ، جایی که تنها توسط زرتشتیان از هند به دنبال ، جشن اعتدال بهاری به عنوان Jamshed – Nouroz من ، با روز پس از آن که جشن سال نو در ماه ژوئیه / اوت به عنوان Pateti (پایین را ببینید).

* Pateti ، “(روز) طلب مغفرت” (از patet “اعترافات” ، از این رو نیز توبه و طلب مغفرت). این در واقع یک روز از درون گرایی ، و در اصل در روز (و یا در 5 روز گذشته) آخرین سال تقویم رخ داده است. بنا به دلایل مربوط به مناسبت های روز تنها بودن بیش از شش روز مشاهده ، (آخرین روز) Pateti آمد به سقوط در (روز اول) سال نو جشن روز ، و در هند (Shahenshahi / Kadmi تقویمهای) به دست می آمد “جشن “در روز سال نو خود را. اگر چه نام بوده است را حفظ ، Pateti است و دیگر روز از درون گرایی.

* جشن سده ، اواسط زمستان به طور سنتی جشنواره 100 روز (از این رو جشن سده) پس از روز اول زمستان جشن گرفته ، و یا معادل آن ، 50 روز (100 شب و روز) قبل از روز سال نو. از آنجا که این جشنواره شامل ساختمان اتش ، آن هم به نام ادار – Jashan.

* زرتشت بدون Diso ، سالگرد مرگ زرتشت است ، که در روز جشن 11th (Khorshed) از ماه 10th (جواهری). در تقویم فصلی ، سالگرد مرگ زرتشت می افتد در تاریخ 26 دسامبر.
* خرداد Sal ، که جشن سالگرد تولد زرتشت. در این روز ([ک] hordad) 6th از 1 ماه (فروردین) می افتد. در تقویم فصلی ، سالروز تولد زرتشت می افتد در تاریخ 26 مارس.

تقویم زرتشتی :

Shahenshahi Kadmi و انواع دیگری از تقویم را بین calcate سال کبیسه و از این رو در روز از سال تقویم میلادی که بر روی این روزها هستند شیفت جشن پیش رو با هم نیست. نوع سوم که در تقویم زرتشتی ، شناخته شده به صورت Fasli (در هند) و یا باستانی (در ایران) ، intercalcates با توجه به قواعد تقویم گرگوری و در نتیجه باقی مانده است همزمان با فصل.

ماه نام (با نامهای اوستایی زبان در پرانتز) ، در دنباله ترتیبی استفاده می شود امروز ، عبارتند از :
1. Frawardin (Frauuašinąm)

2. Ardwahisht (Vahištahe Ašahe)

3. خرداد (Haurvatātō)

4. تیر (Tištryehe)

5. Amurdad (Amərətātō)

6. Shahrewar (Vairyehe Xšaθrahe)

7. Mihr (Miθrahe)

8. آبان (Apąm)

9. Adur (Āθrō)

10. جواهری (Daθušō [Ahurahe مزدا])

11. Wahman (Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō)

12. Spendarmad (Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš)

جمعیت :

همانطور که در هر 2004 تخمین می زند تعدادی از زرتشتیان سراسر جهان در بین 145.000 و 210.000 تخمین زده شده است. در سرشماری سال 2001 هند ، شماره 69،601 Parsis ، به نمایندگی از حدود 0.006 درصد از کل جمعیت از هند ، با غلظت در داخل و اطراف شهرستان از بمبئی. با توجه به سرعت کم هنگام تولد و نرخ بالای مهاجرت ، جمعیتی که پروژه روند تا سال 2020 خواهد Parsis تعداد تنها در حدود 23،000 یا 0.002 درصد از کل جمعیت هند است. Parsis در آن صورت جامعه به آن می شود را متوقف خواهد شد و دارای برچسب “قبیله”. سال 2008 ، از تولد تا مرگ نسبت 1:5-200 (میلادی) در هر سال به مرگ 1،000 بود.

در ایران ، مهاجرت ، خارج از ازدواج و نرخ تولد نوزادان کم هستند به همین ترتیب به کاهش جمعیت زرتشتیان ، که در حال حاضر در حدود کمتر از 20،000 پیشرو.

Downfall of a Great Religion – Zoroastrianism

Origin:

Founded before 6th century BCE by the Prophet Zoroaster who was born in Bronze Age from his first vision of Vohu Manah at the age of 30 while taking a dip in Daiti River by the Almighty which the Parsis called in their language as Ahura Mazda in Persia or modern day Iran. There are no notions for reincarnation & they believe in the end of time when the world will be completely revived. The sacred scripture is called Avesta originally written in Old Iranian Language other than the modern day Persian. It used to be the greatest religion in the world during  Sassanid Rule 228BCE when it was at its peak where the empire had promoted the form of Zoroaster to the regions of Central Asia, South Asia, Middle East & even the horizon of their thought increased to Europe & China where even to this day ruins of their temple were found in Zinjiang region of China. With the invasion of Alexander the Great  III of Macedon in 330BCE the downfall of the golden Zoroaster era started when Alexander invading army toppling the Achaemenid Empire where after they burnt the imperial library & the archives where the sacred the texts of Holy Avesta were kept in the original form written by Prophet Zoroaster. Only the fraction of the text survives which later on rewritten by organizing few priests of Zoroastrianism during the Middle Ages when Persia was facing the threat of Arab invasion who under the Umayyad Caliphate toppled the Persian Empire completely & enforced several laws including Jizya which even Persians used to imposed on non Zuruthashtra & conversion missions  were organised to carried out the conversion of non Muslims to Islam where after the 7th century they were left with two choices either to migrate to other neutral regions where they have more acceptable governments or to convert themselves to Islam.

Religious Scripture:

Avestan is the sacred holy book originally written by Zoroaster in the Old Iranian Language Avestan. After the loss of the original teaching due the fire incident of the Imperial Library by the invading Alexander III of Macedon only the fraction of it survived. During the 7th century under the Umayyad Caliphate few priests of Zoroastrianism organised the teachings of Zoroaster. Now the available sacred religious text is divided into the several books which are written in the Avestan script remain to this day are Gathas, Yasna, Visperad and the Vendidad. Along with these texts is the communal household prayer book called the Khordeh Avesta, which contains the Yashts and the Siroza. The rest of the materials from the Avesta are called “Avestan fragments”. The secondary books which are available though not scriptures but the religious works written during Middle Ages in Pahlavi script: Denkard, Bundahishn, Menog-i Khrad, Selections of Zadspram, Jamasp Namag, Epistles of Manucher, Rivayats, Dadestan-i-Denig, and Arda Viraf Namag. All Middle Persian texts written on Zoroastrianism during this time period are considered secondary works on the religion, and not scripture. Nonetheless, these texts have a strong influence on the religion.

Rituals & Beliefs:

Parsis or Zoroastrians’ don’t believe in reincarnation. In Zoroastrianism corpse is host of decay or druj. The Practice of ritual exposure is practiced only by Parsis of Indian Subcontinent where it is not illegal at the” Tower of Silence” whereas where the other disposal methods are available the Zoroastrians either cremate or bury in grave which are cased with lime mortar. Marriage outside religion leads to expulsion from the community. Acceptance of child in the community is only if the father is Parsi otherwise there is no acceptance. Practice like these has lead to further decline of community which suffers from already High infant mortality rate of 200 births per 1000 deaths. Due to this the Zoroastrian community principle seat based in Los Angeles & Paris has decided to discontinue these types of system & invite or encourage couples to accept partner outside their faith. They believe in Water & Fire as main two forms of life. Rituals or worshipping can be performed in the presence of any source of light which has shine. Fire Temple is the place where manor religious activities are performed like marriage, purification, religious faith acceptance ceremony for children & other important daily rituals.

Festivals:


  • Nouruz, New Year’s Day. In the Fasli/Bastani variant of the Zoroastrian calendar, this day is always the day of the spring equinox (nominally falling on March 21).
    In the Shahenshahi and Kadmi calendars, which do not account for leap years, the New Year’s Day has drifted ahead by over 200 days. These latter two variants of the calendar, which are only followed by the Zoroastrians of India, celebrate the spring equinox as Jamshed-i Nouroz, with New Year’s Day then being celebrated in July/August as Pateti (see below).
  • Pateti, “(day) of penitence” (from patet “confession,” hence also repentance and penitence). This is actually a day of introspection, and originally occurred on the last day (or on the last 5 days) of the calendar year. For reasons related to single day occasions being observed over six days, (the last day of) Pateti came to fall on (the first day of) the New Year’s Day celebrations, and in India (Shahenshahi/Kadmi calendars) came to be “celebrated” on New Year’s Day itself. Although the name has been retained, Pateti is no longer a day of introspection.
  • Sadeh, a mid-winter festival traditionally celebrated 100 days (hence sadeh) after the first day of winter, or alternatively, 50 days (100 days and nights) before New Year’s Day. Because this festival involves building a bonfire, it is also called Adar-Jashan.
  • Zartosht No-Diso, the death anniversary of Zarathushtra, which is celebrated on the 11th day (Khorshed) of the 10th month (Dae). In the seasonal calendar, Zoroaster’s death anniversary falls on December 26.
  • Khordad Sal, which celebrates the birth anniversary of Zoroaster. It falls on the 6th day ([K]hordad) of the 1st month (Farvardin). In the seasonal calendar, Zoroaster’s birth anniversary falls on March 26.

Zoroastrian Calender:

The Shahenshahi and Kadmi variants of the calendar do not inter-calcate leap years and hence the day of the Gregorian calendar year on which these days are celebrated shifts ahead with time. The third variant of the Zoroastrian calendar, known as either Fasli (in India) or Bastani (in Iran), intercalcates according to Gregorian calendar rules and thus remains synchronous with the seasons.

The month-names (with Avestan language names in parentheses), in the ordinal sequence used today, are:

1. Frawardin (Frauuašinąm) 

2. Ardwahisht (Ašahe Vahištahe)

3. Khordad (Haurvatātō)

4. Tir (Tištryehe)

5. Amurdad (Amərətātō)

6. Shahrewar (Xšaθrahe Vairyehe)

7. Mihr (Miθrahe)

8. Aban (Apąm)

9. Adur (Āθrō)

10. Dae (Daθušō [Ahurahe Mazdå])

11. Wahman (Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō)

12. Spendarmad (Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš)

 

Demographics:

As per 2004 estimates the number of Zoroastrians worldwide was estimated at between 145,000 and 210,000. In the Indian census of 2001, the Parsis numbered 69,601, representing about 0.006% of the total population of India, with a concentration in and around the city of Mumbai. Due to a low birth rate and high rate of emigration, demographic trends project that by 2020 the Parsis will number only about 23,000 or 0.002% of the total population of India. The Parsis would then cease to be called a community and will be labeled a “tribe”. By 2008, the birth-to-death ratio was 1:5—200 births per year to 1,000 deaths.

In Iran, emigration, out-marriage and low birth rates are likewise leading to a decline in the Zoroastrian population, which is currently estimated at fewer than 20,000.

Bahrain stuck between Saudi Arabia and Iran

While protesters in Libya are attacked by armed insurgents the country is met with the UN resolution on no-fly zone and expanded sanctions. Bahrain’s security forces shoots down unarmed civilian demonstrators in the streets, breaks into private homes and have blocked the country’s largest hospital – where doctors cannot escape and patients cannot get in.

But still Bahrain’s brutal ruler Hamad al-Khalifa and his regime is not brought before the UN Security Council. Maybe it’s because this is a country that both the West and the Arab world need.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has expressed his deepest concern for what is happening in Bahrain and EU and NATO has asked authorities in the country to refrain from violence and resolve problems in the country through political dialogue.

The attack on demonstrators in Manama and other cities Wednesday was extremely brutal and reminded of Kadhafis forces. 6 people were killed and hundreds must have been injured. But the most serious is the situation at Salmaniya Hospital in the capital Manama, Bahrain’s largest and most modern. For some reason, the authorities found that the staff of this hospital is the demonstrator’s supporters – and must be punished – in a manner that violates everything called human rights.

SECURITY FORCES, according to eyewitnesses from both Saudi Arabia and Bahrain surrounded the hospital as no patients were allowed to enter, however, doctors and nurses who have tried to move out to retrieve the wounded, gets beaten up. Medicines and medical supplies is needed and cry for help from hospitals from telephone alone says; “Why will not the world help us?”

Now, sick people, whether they are shot or are acutely ill, brought to smaller hospitals with equipment that in many cases is not good enough to take care of their injuries. The government cares little for so long as the world is most concerned with Kadhafi.

What makes Bahrain so special?

As a small island in the Persian Gulf, the island is strategically important to the oil-rich area. With growing criticism of the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain has become more important and with such U.S. interests, the country has also importance in the NATO context. The Sunni Muslim King Hamad is a good ally of the West, so he has a far greater scope in terms of violence than less good friends. So it is just.

But Bahrain is also important for the Arab countries, not least for the six members of the Gulf Council GCC, in which Saudi Arabia plays the lead role. Golf Council cooperates politically, militarily and economically. In the geopolitical game is primarily one enemy you are interested in, and it is Iran.

Nearly 70% of the citizens of Bahrain’s Shiite Muslims, but Arabs . The possibility that they will team up with their Persian-Iranian co-religionists is small, but this argument is used as a pretext for the necessity of maintaining “stability” in Bahrain. Saudi Arabia has in principle a more urgent problem. The majority of the population in the oil-rich Al-Hasa province in eastern Saudi Arabia’s Shiite’s and the Saudi royal family fears a spillover effect from Bahrain. It is perhaps the main reason that the country Monday sent 1,000 soldiers to Bahrain to help the King Hamad to quell the revolt.

بھارت میں پشتون ولی کے خاتمے فہد حسین کی طرف سے

پختون ولی جو صرف اسلام کی طرح کسی بھی افغانستان کے لئے اس سے بھی اتنا ہی اہم ہے 1857 کے بعد سب سے زیادہ Rohilla پشتونوں کی شکست ہے جو Rohilla سلطنت کے طور پر اور سخت 1947 کے بعد شمالی بھارت کے بڑے بڑے علاقے راج کے بعد کا سامنا کرنا پڑا ہے. طرزعمل اور پٹھان کے لئے زندگی کا لائحہ عمل کا کوڈ دہائیوں کے ذریعے ایک مشق میں تیز کمی دیکھی ہے. جیسا کہ بھارت تقسیم اور بنیادی معلومات پاکستان اور بعض کے نو تشکیل ریاست گیا ہے ان کے آبائی علاقے میں واپس پناہ اسی کے خون کا باقی حصہ لیا ان کی ثقافت اور روایات جو ایک بار ملک ہے جہاں ان کے کوڈ کو قانون تھا حکومت کے ساتھ زندہ رہنے کے لئے جدوجہد کئی کے لئے اور جان لاکھوں کے لئے. ساتھ بدلتے وقت اور ایک سیاسی جائزہ روایات کے لئے مشکل کام کیے جب اس کے اثرات افغانستان کے صرف ایک پرانی شان کے ساتھ بائیں اقلیتی کا تعاقب کیا اور محب وطن وعدوں سے بچ. ساتھ ہی جین پول دوسرے مذہب اور کمیونٹیز کے ساتھ مل رہی انٹر تبدیل سماجی تبدیلی کی ساری نئی آسمان آتا ہے.

روایات اور اخلاق کی کمی : روایات اور مہمان نوازی ، محبت لوک رقص ، گانے اور دیگر ثقافتی سرگرمیوں کی طرح ، عدل و انصاف ، بخشش ، روایت پسند خصوصیات گئے زمانے اور کی طرف سے کے الفاظ تھے بچ گئے انٹر نسلی شادیوں کے ساتھ ملا کر لئے گئے تو. پھتون کوڈ جو افغان اور ان کے قبائل کے قوانین ہمیشہ کے لیے گم ہو گئے ، جیسا کہ نئی نسل میں مزید چھوٹے یا کوئی ان کے بلند کے عنوان اور عام طور پر نئی ہندوستانی سماج میں ان کی منظوری کے نقصان کے نتیجے میں والدین کی طرف سے منظور علم کے ساتھ رہ گئے تھے. پشتون میں جرگہ کے نقصان پر بھارت میں بائیں سے 1947 کے بعد کا م برائےمکمل روایتی گر. اتحاد و مساوات کا کوڈ کو اسلام کے طور پر کھو جنگ لڑی میں بھارت کو تقسیم کر دیا پھیر لیا اپنے سماجی ڈھانچے لکھ کر لگا کے واسطے سے سکولوں کے ساتھ متعدد جماعت اور نظریات میں یہ الگ کرنا.

Rohilla سلطنت کے تحت بھارت میں پختون ولی کے مراکز : جیسے شہروں لاہور ، رامپر ، میرٹھ ، لکھنؤ ، امروہہ ، سمنسل ، مجففرنگر ، شاہجہامپر ، سہارنپور ، دہلی ، آگرہ اور بہت سے بے شمار شہروں میں جہاں ایک بار پشتون حکومت اور نکھرا تھا افغان ثقافت کی چھوٹ گیا جس پختون ولی کی قبر پر بنائے گئے تھے. سب سے زیادہ نقصان جو افغانوں کا سامنا کرنا پڑا نقصان اور ان کی زبان پشتو کا کوئی فائدہ نہیں ہے جہاں ایک وقت میں پوری قوم پڑھتا ہے اور فخر اور شان کے ساتھ بولتے ہیں لیکن پشتو اب بھی سکھایا ہے جو کچھ اس میں اعلی تعلیم کی پیشکش اداروں کے متن کی کتابوں میں موجود تھا.

پٹھان معاشرے میں آج شاید ہی کوئی کوڈ یا مشہور بھارت میں بلایا خان ان کے طرز عمل کی آبائی کوڈ جو بھی ہے اب مکمل طور پر افغان معاشرے کے نام نہاد مغربی اثر و رسوخ کی دھول میں گم ہی امتوں کو یہاں بچ جانے والے کی طرف سے اپنی اقدار اور مذہب سے بڑھ کر ہے پیروی . خون کی لائن کے نقصان کے ساتھ بھارتی پٹھان اپنی روایات اور ہے پہلے ہی افغانستان میں جو ان پر پابندی کا افغانی میں یا پابندی میں جبکہ نسل پر بھارتی پٹھان کے طور پر ان کی بھارتی بائیں بلا صرف اسرائیل کہہ کے طور پر ممتاز سے الگ کی سنگین مستقبل کا سامنا ہے.

پختون ولی کا ورثہ ہے جو آج بھی بھارت میں موجود ہے :

ایک نظر اور روایتی گجل ، قوالی یا صوفی افغان پشتون کو دیسی موسیقی ، لوک رقص ، جمہور علماء کرام نے شاعری کا لطف کر سکتے ہیں. تاریخی افغانوں کی طرف سے تشکیل یادگاریں ابھی بھی یاد پورے بھارت اور احترام ہے جو سیاحوں کے لاکھوں ہر سال اپنی طرف متوجہ کے ساتھ برقرار کھڑے ہیں.

یہ حکم ہے جو صدیوں سے بھارت کی حکومت اب ہے کہ ہندوستانی تاریخ کا متن اس کھو سائے سے بچ جانے والے کی کتابوں میں ہی موجود تھے.

Decline of PASHTUNWALI in India by Fahad Hussain

Pashtunwali which is equally important for any Afghan just like Islam to him has suffered most after 1857 after the defeat of Rohilla Pashtuns who ruled the large swaths of North India as Rohilla Empire & drastically after 1947. The code of conduct & framework of life for pathans have seen a sharp decline in practise through decades. As India got divided & the basics gone to the newly formed state of Pakistan & some took shelter back into their ancestral vicinity the remaining part of the same blood struggles to survive with his culture & traditions which once ruled the nation where their code was the law for many & soul for millions. With the changing times & a political scenario the traditions were hard to carried out when effects of it overwhelmed the Afghan minority left with just a old glory to survive & the patriotic commitments. With the gene pool getting mixed with other religion & communities the inter change brings the whole new sky of sociological transformation.

Loss of Traditions & Code: Traditions & qualities like hospitality, love, justice, forgiveness, tradition like folk dance, songs & other cultural activities were the words of by gone era & if survived were got mixed with the inter ethnic marriages. The Pashtoon code which rules the Afghans & Their tribes were lost forever as the new generations were more left with little or no knowledge passed by their glorified parents resulting in the loss of titles & their acceptance in the new Indian society in general. After 1947 with the loss of Jirga in pashtuns left in India the complete traditional collapsed. The code of unity & equality fought the lost battle as the Islam in India took a divided turn segregating it into numerous jamats & ideologies with the countless schools of thought prescribing their own social structure.

Centers of Pashtunwali in India under Rohilla Empire: The cities like Bareilly, Rampur, Meerut, Lucknow, Amroha, Sambhal, Muzaffarnagar, Shahjahanpur, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra & many countless towns where once Pashtuns had ruled & flourished were the deserts of Afghan culture which were created on the grave of Pashtunwali. The worst loss which the Afghans faced was the loss & no use of their language Pashto where at one time the whole nation reads & speaks with pride & glory though Pashto still taught which survives in the text books of some institutions offering higher studies in it.

Today hardly any code in Pathan society or famously in India called Khans follows their ancestral code of conduct which is even greater than their own values & religion from generations is now completely lost in the dirt of the so called western influence of the Afghan society surviving here. With the loss of the blood line the Indian pathans face grime future of their traditions & is already separated by Afghans who distinguish them as by saying Ban I Afghani or Ban I Isrial while calling their Indian left over generation simply as Indian Pathans.

Legacy of Pashtunwali which survives in India even today is:

One can see & enjoy traditional ghazals, qawwalis or sufi music indigenous to Afghan pashtuns, folk dance, poetry by the scholars. Historical monuments built by Afghans are still standing intact with care & respect across India which attracts millions of tourists each year.

The order which governed India for centuries is now only present in the Indian History text books surviving with its lost shadow.

Religions without Prophets – List of those religions where prophets were not born.

Sikhism: Formed in 15th Century AD as a reaction to the social and religious practices of the time in the Indian subcontinent. The Sikh Gurus (or teachers) have emphasized on recognizing all humans as equal before Waheguru (Guru Nanak), regardless of colour, caste or lineage. The Sikh Gurus did not call themselves as prophets. The emphasis is on a single all pervading God and creating a relationship with him. There is no place for intermediaries. The Sikh holy book is known as the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Which was compiled by Arjan Dev Singh, added the teachings of 5 Gurus beginning with Guru Nanak Dev Ji and includes passages from both Hindu and Sufi saints.The Sikh Gurus have referred to their compositions as “dhur ki bani” or the word of primal divine source. Place of ritual is Gurudwara Sahib. Major locations of stronghold are States of West Punjab, NWFP in Pakistan & in India East Punjab, Delhi NCR, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Major places of worship; Golden Temple Amritsar – India, Nanakana Sahib – Pakistan, Ponta Sahib – Punjab, Hem Kund, Nanak Matta – Uttrakhand, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib Delhi – India.

Buddhism: Founded by Prince Siddhartha Gautama of North India in 6th Century BC who was after his enlighten known as Gautama Buddha? Its sacred texts are Pali Canon (Tripitaka), numerous Mahayana sutras written originally in Pali. As per Tibetan Buddhism Monk is the spiritual leader. Buddhism follows the system taught by Buddha. Place of worship is Temple, meditation hall. Main sects in Buddhism are Theravada and Mahayana. Major locations of stronghold are India, China, Japan, Korea, Sri Lanka, South East Asia. Major locations: Sarnath, Gaya, Patna, Twang, Dharamshala, Leh, Laol Spiti, Gangtok – India, Colombo – Sri Lanka, Bangkok – Thailand, Cambodia, Guangzou, Lahsa – China, Bagan – Burma.

Jainism: Jains derive their name from the jinas, spiritual conquerors who have achieved liberation and perfection. Included among these are the 24 spiritual leaders called “ford-makers” or tirthankaras. The last of the tirthankaras was Mahavira (599-527 BC), a contemporary of the Buddha and the man generally considered the founder of Jainism. Jinas are believed to reside in the

top level of heaven, above the realm of the gods. Accordingly, liberated souls are revered more than the gods. Formed in 550 BC, sacred scriptures are the teachings ofMahavira written originally in Sanskrit, major sects are Digambaras (“sky-clad”); Shvetambaras (“white-clad”), monks are the spiritual leader’s place of worship is the temple. Major location is India. Major places of worship are: Palitana, Shankheshwar, Shikharji, Vataman, Mumbai, Mahudi Shri Ghantakarna Vir Temple and Ahmedabad – India.

Taoism: also known as Daoism was founded by Lao – Tze in China in 550 BC, based on the teachings of the Tao Te Ching, a short tract written in the 6th century BC in China. Its emphasis on spiritual harmony within the individual complements; Taoism is also increasingly influential in the West, especially in the fields of alternative medicine and martial arts like Tai Chi. There are two main strands and schools within Taoism, usually labeled “philosophical Taoism” (Tao-chia) and “religious Taoism” (Tao-chaio). Tao Te Ching, Chuang-Tzu is sacred scripture originally written in traditional Chinese. Sage is a spiritual leader in Taoism. House of worship is temple. Major locations are; China, South East Asia.

 

Shintoism: Shinto (also Shintoism) is the term for the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Japan. Shinto has no founder, no official sacred scriptures, and no fixed creeds, but it has preserved its main beliefs and rituals throughout the ages. The word Shinto, which comes from the Chinese shin tao, meaning “the way of kami“, came into use in order to distinguish indigenous Japanese beliefs from Buddhism, which had been introduced into Japan in the 6th century AD. Shinto has no founder or founding date. When the Japanese people and Japanese culture became aware of themselves, Shinto was already there. Yayoi culture, which originated in the northern area of the island of Kyushu around the 3rd or 2nd century BC, is directly related to later Japanese culture and Shinto. Among the primary Yayoi religious phenomena were agricultural rites and shamanism. Early shamans (miko) performed the ceremonies; eventually those of the Yamato tribe did so; on behalf of the other tribes and their chieftain assumed duties that led to headship of the Shinto state. Texts comprises of Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters), Nihongi or Nihon shoki (Chronicles of Japan). Major location is Japan. Major places of worship are: Mt. Fuji, Dazaifu Tenmangu, Oyama Shrine, Toshogu Shrine, Tsurugaoka Hachimangu, Fushimi Inari Shrine, Ise Shrines, Izumo Shrine, Atsuta Shrine, Heian Shrine, Meiji Shrine all are in Japan.

Baha’ism: Also popularly known as Bahai Faith was founded in 1844 – 1882 in Iran by the two controversial leaders proclaimed to be the first preacher of Bahai named Bab & Baha ullah, declaring themselves as the prophets of modern world. The laws of the Bahá’í Faith primarily come from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, written by Baha’u’llah, which is also a main scripture, It is sometimes also referred to as The Aqdas, “the Most Holy Book”, “the Book of Laws” and occasionally the Book of Aqdas, originally written in Arabic & its title in Persian. The Manifestations of God are analogous to divine mirrors which reflect God’s created attributes and thus reveal aspects of God without being incarnations of God’s essence.

It is through these divine educators that humans can approach God, and through them God brings divine revelation and law. Bahá’ís believe that God expresses his will at all times and in manyways, and specifically through a series of divine messengers referred to as Manifestations of God or sometimes divine educators. The supreme seat is based in Israel. Major locations are Israel, Europe, US, India, South East Asia.

Greek Religion: Greek religion is the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. Greek people recognized the major gods and goddesses: Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Athena, Hermes, Demeter, Hestia and Hera though philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism. Grreks believes in afterlife or re incarnation. Their sacred texts are Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and Days, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and Pindar’s Odes. Major Locations are Greece, Italy, and Cyprus. Major places of worship were: Arcadia.

Another Victim of Blasphemy – Pakistan killed Shahbaz Bhatti

Shahbaz Bhatti, who was the only Catholic in the Pakistan government, had advocated changes in Pakistan’s strict blasphemy laws. The Catholic minister was killed in a cool rain of three or four men with automatic weapons after he had visited his mother in a residential area of Islamabad. His car was riddled with bullet holes after the assassination, and though he was dead before he was taken to hospital.

Taliban takes responsibility

Pakistani Taliban said they killed Bhatti because he was guilty of blasphemy, and because he wanted to change the blasphemy law. The Blasphemy law has been in the spotlight since November, when a Christian mother of four was sentenced to death for having blasphemed the prophet although she denies the charges.

In early January, the governor of Punjab, Salman Taseer was killed by one of his bodyguards. Taseer was a consistent opponent of the blasphemy law, and had among other things, visited the condemned woman in prison.

After the murder of Taseer, Bhatti said that he had also received threats. But he would still not have bodyguards. He said he trusted in God’s protection.

Frames minorities

Liberal Pakistanis and human rights groups believe the law is highly discriminatory against the small religious minorities in Pakistan. Especially Christians, who account for 2 percent of Pakistan’s population is concerned. By law, anyone who speaks ill of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad, sentenced to death, but activists say the law open to abuse.

It is not uncommon that people are judged by the law, but no death sentences have so far been implemented. Many people are acquitted after appeal their sentences, but many who are accused, have also been killed by the fanatical Islamists.

The murder of Taseer was severely condemned by the United States and other Western countries, but the guard who killed him, is hailed as a hero in broad segments of the Pakistani population.

Pashtunwali – Indonesian Version / Pashtunwali – Versi Bahasa Indonesia

Pashtun wali adalah demokratis tidak tertulis, sosio-politik budaya, hukum dan ideologi masyarakat Pashtoon, diwarisi dari nenek moyang mereka dan pembawa ke generasi sekarang sebagai kode hukum dan moral yang menentukan tatanan sosial dan tanggung jawab.

Ini adalah “kode kehormatan” kuno milik Pashtun Afghanistan dan Pakistan, termasuk masyarakat Pashtun di seluruh dunia. Pashtun merangkul sebuah tradisional kuno, spiritual, dan identitas komunal terikat pada satu set kode moral dan aturan-aturan perilaku yang fleksibel dan dinamis, yang berisi prinsip-prinsip modern dan kuno.
Sistem ini telah berhasil semua urusan sosial dan internal masyarakat Pashtoon sebelum dan sesudah Islam. Ini telah menciptakan pemerintah daerah kecil dan besar di Tengah dan Asia Selatan dan secara sosial dilakukan oleh mayoritas.

Pashtun wali mempromosikan diri, kemerdekaan, keadilan, keramahan, cinta, pengampunan, dendam dan toleransi terhadap semua, terutama untuk orang asing dan tamu. Semua kode etik sangat membantu dalam mempertahankan cek sosial dan moral dan saldo dalam masyarakat Pashtun. Hal ini dianggap sebagai tanggung jawab pribadi dari setiap Pashtun untuk menemukan dan menemukan kembali esensi wali Pashtun dan makna.

Untuk 8 berabad-abad ‘membentuk nasionalisme Pashtoon pemerintah pusat politik untuk pertama kalinya pada abad 12 dan kemudian mendirikan sebuah pemerintahan terpusat yang kuat pada pertengahan abad 18.
Semua kelompok kecil dan besar suku dan etnis berpartisipasi dalam reformasi dan perbaikan administrasi pemerintah dan dalam berbagai aspek ekonomi, sosial dan budaya. Dengan memperkuat hubungan di antara kelompok etnis dalam urusan sosio-ekonomi, Pashtoon nasionalisme berubah menjadi nasionalisme Afghanistan.
Pashtun wali adalah batu fondasi pertama, nasionalisme Pashtoon adalah kedua dan nasionalisme afghan adalah fase ketiga dan evolusi struktur politik.

Kode ini;

* Iman – percaya pada Allah (dikenal sebagai “Allah”) Gagasan mempercayai pencipta satu.
* Baik Pikiran, Good Words, Good Deeds – Sebuah Pashtun harus selalu berusaha bagi berpikir pikiran yang baik, mengucapkan kata-kata yang baik dan melakukan perbuatan baik.
* Perilaku – Pashtun harus bersikap hormat terhadap semua ciptaan termasuk manusia, hewan dan lingkungan sekitar mereka. Pencemaran lingkungan dan / atau perusakan adalah terhadap wali Pashtun.
* Persatuan – di atas bahasa mereka berbicara, di atas darah mereka terus, di atas jumlah uang yang mereka buat, wali menyatukan Pashtun Pashtun sebagai salah satu orang di seluruh dunia. Dimana ada persatuan benar, setiap upaya untuk menceraiberaikan mereka hanya akan berfungsi untuk memperkuat kesatuan mereka miliki. Apa yang terjadi pada satu – terjadi pada semua.
* Kesetaraan – Setiap orang adalah sama. Setiap orang menginginkan mengatakan di masa depan dan ia akan memperjuangkan hak untuk memiliki pendapatnya didengar. Semua orang itu harus berurusan dengan satu sama lain, dengan kesopanan yang tepat atau menghargai dan tidak ada yang dapat memaksakan kehendak mereka pada yang lain.
* Restoran dan tempat kudus – Menjadi ramah pada semua orang, dan khusus untuk tamu, bahkan yang paling bermusuhan musuh mungkin (jika meminta) diberikan perlindungan, suaka atau perlindungan serta makanan dan bantuan lainnya.
* Keadilan dan pengampunan – Jika salah satu kesalahan sengaja lain, korban mempunyai hak, bahkan kewajiban, untuk membalaskan ketidakadilan ini dalam proporsi yang sama. Jika seseorang telah dengan sengaja bersalah padamu, dan kamu tidak mencari keadilan juga tidak pelaku kesalahan meminta Anda untuk diri maaf padanya, kemudian hutang, yang berhutang kepada Anda oleh dia, yang hanya dapat dipenuhi sekali keadilan (melalui tindakan balas dendam atau keputusan dewan Jirga) telah disediakan untuk balasan kesalahan yang dilakukan.
* Persaudaraan dan kepercayaan – keyakinan bahwa sesama saudara atau saudari Pashtun harus dipercaya dan dibantu untuk sejauh mungkin.
* Kehormatan – Pashtun harus menjaga independensi mereka dan martabat manusia. Kehormatan telah sangat penting dalam masyarakat Pashtun dan sangat penting untuk menjaga kehormatan seseorang atau kebanggaan.
menghormati Diri * – Individu harus menghormati diri sendiri dan orang lain agar dapat melakukannya, terutama yang mereka tidak tahu. Menghormati dimulai di rumah, di antara anggota keluarga dan kerabat.
* Kasih sayang dan kerjasama – Masyarakat miskin, yang lemah, dan yang ditantang harus didukung. Inklusi harus lebih suka pengecualian. Untuk mempertahankan terhadap kelompok tirani, fasisme dan terlalu bersemangat dan bekerja cerdas pertama dan kemudian keras.
* Keluarga – Keluarga harus dimuliakan di bawah keyakinan suci tanggung jawab dan kewajiban dengan menghormati istri, anak perempuan, orang tua, orang tua, anak, dan suami.
* Kami adalah satu keluarga – Fellow Pashtun harus dipelihara. Mungkin ada ratusan suku, tetapi mereka memiliki satu takdir dalam persatuan dengan satu sama lain.
* Pengetahuan – Pashtun mencari pengetahuan obyektif dalam hidup, seni, ilmu pengetahuan, dan budaya, yang dianggap buah-buahan diberikan oleh Tuhan.
* Sejarah Pashtun – nilai Great ditempatkan dalam tragedi sejarah Pashtun, dan kemenangan. Ini mengajarkan Pashtun “untuk menjaga pikiran terbuka, untuk melanjutkan pencarian kebenaran, banyak yang telah lenyap dalam sejarah itu sendiri”.
* Fight jahat – Evil adalah perang konstan dengan baik. Kejahatan harus diperjuangkan dan baik harus menang atas kejahatan. Ini adalah tugas Pashtun untuk melawan kejahatan ketika dia berhadapan dengan itu.
* Kejujuran dan Janji – A Pashtun dikenal untuk menjaga janji mereka dan bersikap jujur pada semua situasi dan waktu. Sebuah Pashtun sejati tidak akan pernah melanggar janji mereka.
* Restoran-Pashtun memperlakukan semua tamu dan orang yang masuk rumah mereka dengan hormat dan selalu pergi dengan satu ucapan.

Pashtunwali – Turkish Version / Peştun Wali – Türkçe Versiyon

Peştun Wali yazılı olmayan bir demokratik, sosyo-politik kültür, hukuk ve Peştun toplumun ideoloji, toplumsal düzen ve sorumluluklarını belirleyen bir yasal ve ahlaki olarak bugünkü nesle kendi ataları ve taşıyıcı miras alınır.

Bu dünyada Peştun topluluklar da dahil olmak üzere, Afganistan ve Pakistan Peştunlar ait eski bir “onur kod” dir. Peştunlar ve eski bir geleneksel, ruhsal kucaklama toplumsal kimlik, modern ve antik ilkeleri içeren, esnek ve dinamik bir ahlaki kodlar ve davranış kurallarının bir dizi bağladılar.
Bu sistemin öncesi ve İslam sonrası Peştun toplumun tüm sosyal ve içişleri başardı. O Orta ve Güney Asya’da küçük ve büyük yerel yönetimlerin yarattığı bu sosyal çoğunluğu tarafından uygulanmaktadır.

Peştun Wali yabancılarla ve konuklar, özellikle öz saygı, bağımsızlık, adalet, konukseverlik, sevgi, affedicilik, intikam ve hoşgörü tüm yönünde teşvik etmektedir. Davranış Tüm bu kodları Peştun toplum içinde sosyal ve ahlaki kontrol ve dengelerin devamlılığında faydalıdır. Onu keşfetmek için her Peştun kişisel bir sorumluluk olarak kabul edilir ve yeniden Peştun Wali özünü ve anlamını keşfetmek.

8 Yüzyıllar boyunca ‘Peştun milliyetçilik ve 12. yüzyılda ilk kez bir siyasi merkezi hükümeti kurdu sonra Orta 18. yüzyılda güçlü bir merkezi hükümet kurdu.
Tüm küçük ve büyük aşiretler ve etnik gruplar reform ve iyileştirme devlet idaresi ve çeşitli ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel yönlerini katıldı. sosyo-ekonomik konularda bu etnik gruplar arasındaki ilişkilerin güçlendirilmesi ile Peştun milliyetçiliğinin Afgan milliyetçiliğe dönüştü.
Peştun Wali ilk temel taşı olduğunu, Peştun milliyetçiliği ve ikinci Afgan milliyetçiliği siyasal yapısının üçüncü ve evrimsel aşamasıdır.

Kodları;

* Faith – God (“Allah” olarak da bilinir) bir yaratıcısı güvenen kavramı güven.
* İyi Düşünce, İyi Kelimeler, İyi Deeds – A Peştun gerekir her zaman, iyi düşüncelerle güzel sözler, konuşma ve iyi işler yapmaya yönelik çalışıyoruz.
* Davranış – Paştunlar insanlar, hayvanlar ve çevrelerindeki çevre dahil, tüm eserleri karşı saygılı davranmak zorundadır. Çevre Kirliliği ve / veya imha Peştun Wali aykırıdır.
* Unity – onlar yaptıkları para miktarı üstünde tutmaya kan, Peştun Wali dünya çapında bir kişi olarak Peştunlar birleştiren yukarıda, konuştuğu diller üzerinde. Gerçek birlik, onları sadece sahip oldukları birlik güçlendirmeye hizmet edecek ayrılmak için her türlü çabayı olduğu yerde. Ne biri olur – bütün olur.
* Eşitlik – Her insan eşittir. Her insan bir geleceği söz ve onun görüşlerini duymuş onun hakkı için mücadele edecek istiyor. Tüm insanlar bu nedenle uygun kibarlık veya saygı ve başka kendi isteklerini empoze olabilir kimse ile, birbirleri ile uğraşmak zorunda.
* Konaklama ve kutsal – Varlık herkese ve özellikle misafirlere misafirperver, hatta en düşmanlarının düşmanca kutsal, iltica veya koruma yanı sıra gıda ve diğer yardım sağlanacaktır (talep halinde) olabilir.
* Adalet ve af – kimse kasten başka yanlışlar varsa, kurban eşit oranda bu adaletsizlik intikamını almak için doğru, hatta bir zorunluluk vardır. kimse kasten size haksızlık varsa, ve ne de adalet talep etmedi günahkâr onun tarafından size borçlu olduğunu onun af, sonra borç için sordun / onu, sadece bir hareket yoluyla (bir zamanlar adalet yerine getirilebilir intikam ya da Jirga meclisinin kararı) yapılan yanlış karşılık sağlanmıştır.
* Kardeşlik ve güven – diğer Peştun kardeşler güvenilir olması gerektiğini ve büyük ölçüde mümkün destekli inanç.
* Onur – Peştunlar bağımsızlık ve insan onurunu korumak zorundadır. Onur birinin şeref ve gururunu korumak Peştun toplumun ve onun çok önemli büyük önem taşımaktadır.
* Öz saygı – Bireysel sipariş özellikle de bilmiyorum, bunu yapabilmek için de kendisine ve başkalarına saygılı olmalıdır. Saygı aile üyeleri ve akrabalar arasında, evde başlar.
* Şefkat ve işbirliği – fakir, zayıf, ve meydan desteklenmesi gerekir. Dahil dışlanmaya tercih edilmelidir. ve zulüm, faşizm ve çok istekli gruplara karşı savunmak çalışmak için akıllı ve daha sonra ilk sabit.
* Aile – Aile eşleri, kızları, yaşlıların, anne, oğulları ve kocaları için saygı ile sorumluluk ve görev kutsal bir mahkumiyet altında övmek gerekir.
Adam Peştun için dikkat edilmesi gereken – * Biz bir aileyiz. kabileleri yüzlerce olabilir, ancak birbirleriyle birlik bir kaderi var.
* Bilgi – Peştunlar Tanrı tarafından verilen meyve kabul edilen hayat, sanat, bilim, kültür ve objektif bilgi isteyin.
* Peştun geçmişi – Büyük değer Peştun tarih, trajediler ve zaferlerden yerleştirilir. O “çok hangi tarihin kendisi altında yok oldu, gerçeği arama devam etmek, zihin açık tutmak için” Peştunlar öğretir.
* Kötü Fight – Evil iyi ile sürekli savaş yer almaktadır. Kötü mücadele edilmeli ve iyi kötü üzerinde hakim olmalıdır. O / o ile yüz yüze geldiğinde kötü mücadele için bir Peştunlar görevidir.
* Dürüstlük ve Promise – Bir Peştun, sözlerini tutmak ve her durumda ve zaman dürüst olduğu için bilinir. Gerçek bir Peştun olan sözlerinin sonu asla.
* Konaklama-Peştunlar tüm misafirler ve büyük bir saygı ile evlerine girmek her zaman söyleyerek tek gitmek davranmak.

Pashtunwali – Russian Version / Пуштунвали – русская версия

Пуштунских Вали является неписаным демократических, социально-политической культуры, права и идеологии общества пуштунов, унаследовали от своих предков и несущая на нынешнее поколение, как правовой и моральный кодекс, который определяет общественный порядок и ответственность.

Это древний “кодекс чести”, который принадлежит пуштунов Афганистана и Пакистана, в том числе пуштунских общин по всему миру. Пуштунов объятия древних традиционных, духовных и общинной идентичности связана с множеством моральных кодексов и правил поведения, который является гибким и динамичным, содержащие современные и древние принципы.
Эта система управляется всех социальных и внутренних дел общества пуштунов до и после ислама. Он создал малых и больших местных органов власти в Центральной и Южной Азии, и это социально практикуется большинством.

Пуштунских Вали способствует самоуважению, независимости, справедливости, гостеприимство, любовь, прощение, месть и терпимости по отношению ко всем, особенно с незнакомыми людьми и гостей. Все эти кодексы поведения являются полезными в поддержании социальных и моральных сдержек и противовесов в обществе пуштунов. Считается, личной ответственности каждого пуштунского, чтобы обнаружить и заново открыть для себя пуштунских Вали сущность и значение.

За 8 веков “национализм пуштунов формируется политическая центрального правительства в первый раз в 12 веке, а затем создали сильное централизованное правительство в середине 18 века.
Все малые и большие племена и этнические группы приняли участие в реформе и совершенствованию государственного управления и в различных экономических, социальных и культурных аспектов. С укрепление отношений между этими этническими группами в социально-экономические вопросы, пуштунов национализм был преобразован в афганской национализма.
Пуштунских вали это первый камень фундамента, пуштунов национализм второй и афганского национализма является третьей и эволюционные фазы политической структуры.

Коды;

* Вера – вера в Бога (известный как “Аллах”) понятие доверия в Единого Творца.
* Хорошие мысли, хорошие слова, добрые дела – пуштунские всегда должны стремиться к мышления хорошие мысли, говорить хорошие слова и делать добрые дела.
* Поведение – пуштуны должны вести себя уважительно по отношению ко всем творениям, включая людей, животных и окружающей среды вокруг них. Загрязнение окружающей среды и / или его уничтожения против Вали пуштунов.
* Единства – над языках они говорят, выше крови они держат, выше сумму денег, которую они делают, пуштунских Вали объединяет пуштунов, как один народ во всем мире. Там, где есть подлинное единство, все усилия, чтобы разъединить их будет только способствовать укреплению единства у них есть. Что происходит с одним – случается со всеми.
* Равенство – Каждый человек равны. Каждый человек хочет сказать в своем будущем, и он будет бороться за право, чтобы его мнение было услышано. Все люди должны поэтому иметь дело друг с другом, с надлежащим вежливость и уважение, и никто не может навязывать свою волю другому.
* Гостеприимство и святилище – Быть гостеприимным для всех, и специально для гостей, даже самых враждебных врагов может (если просили) предоставляется убежище, убежище или защиту, а также продовольствия и другой помощи.
* Юстиции и прощение – Если намеренно обиды другого, потерпевший имеет право, даже обязанность, чтобы отомстить за эту несправедливость в равной пропорции. Если намеренно обидел тебя, и ты не искал справедливости и не правонарушителя просим вас за его / ее о прощении, то долг, это объясняется вам его / ее, которые могут быть выполнены только один раз правосудия (через акт мести или решение Совета джирги) была предоставлена компенсация неправильно сделали.
* Братства и доверия – вера в то, что братьям пуштунских, или сестер, должно быть надежным и содействие в максимально возможной степени.
* Честь – пуштуны должны сохранять свою независимость и человеческое достоинство. Честь имеет большое значение в пуштунского общества и его очень важно сохранить свою честь и гордость.
* Самоуважение – Люди должны уважать себя и других, чтобы быть в состоянии сделать это, особенно тех, кого они не знают. Уважение начинается дома, между членами семьи и родственниками.
* Доброта и сотрудничества – бедных, слабых, и оспаривается должны быть поддержаны. Включение должно быть предпочтительным для изоляции. Чтобы защититься от тирании, фашизма и переусердствовать групп и работать умные, а затем тяжело.
* Семья – семье должен быть прославлен в священных убеждение ответственность и обязанность по отношению к женам, дочерям, старейшины, родители, сыновья и мужья.
* Мы одна семья – сотрудник пуштунских нужно беречь. Там могут быть сотни племен, но они имеют одну судьбу в союзе друг с другом.
* Знание – пуштуны искать объективные знания в жизни, искусства, науки и культуры, которые считаются плоды, предоставленных Богом.
* Пуштунских истории – Великая значение помещается в пуштунских истории, трагедий и побед. Она учит пуштунов “держать ум открытым, чтобы продолжить поиск истины, большая часть которых исчезла под самой истории”.
* Бороться со злом – зло на постоянной войны с хорошим. Зло должно быть сражались и хорошо должны превалировать над злом. Это обязанность пуштунов, чтобы бороться со злом, когда он / она встречается лицом к лицу с ним.
* Честность и Promise – пуштунские известен выполняют своих обещаний и быть честными в любой ситуации и времени. Истинной пуштунских не нарушу свое обещание.
* Гостеприимство-пуштунов относиться ко всем гостям и люди, которые входят свои дома с большим уважением и всегда идут одним говорю.

Pashtunwali – Hebrew Version / פשטוני ואלי – עברית גירסה

פשטוני ואלי הוא לא כתוב דמוקרטית, חברתית פוליטית, תרבות החוק ואת האידיאולוגיה של החברה פשטוני, בירושה אבותיהם ואת הספק על הדור הנוכחי כקוד החוקית והמוסרית הקובע הסדר החברתי והאחריות.

זהו “קוד הכבוד” עתיק השייך פשטוני של אפגניסטן ופקיסטן, לרבות קהילות פשטוני ברחבי העולם. פשטוני לאמץ רוחנית עתיקה המסורתי, ולאחר הזהות הקהילתית קשורה לקבוצה של קודים מוסריים וכללי התנהגות כי הוא גמיש ודינמי, הכולל עקרונות מודרניים ועתיקים.
מערכת זו הצליחה כל הרווחה הפנימית של החברה פשטוני לפני ואחרי האיסלאם. זה יצר ממשלות מקומיות קטנות וגדולות במרכז ודרום אסיה הוא התאמן חברתית על ידי הרוב.

פשטוני ואלי מקדמת כבוד עצמי, עצמאות, צדק,, האירוח אהבה, סליחה, נקמה סובלנות כלפי כל, במיוחד זרים ואורחים. כל אלה הם קודי התנהגות מסייעת לשמור על המחאות חברתית ומוסרית ויתרות בחברה פשטוני. זה נחשב האחריות האישית של כל פשטוני לגלות מחדש לגלות מהות ואלי פשטוני ומשמעות.

במשך 8 המאות “הלאומיות פשטוני הקים ממשלה מרכזית הפוליטית בפעם הראשונה במאה ה -12 ולאחר מכן הוקמה ממשלה מרכזית חזקה באמצע המאה ה -18.
כל קבוצות קטנות וגדולות שבטים אתניים השתתפו הרפורמה ושיפור של הממשל הממשלה ואת היבטיה השונים הכלכלי, החברתי והתרבותי. עם חיזוק הקשרים בין אלו קבוצות אתניות בענייני כלכלית חברתית, הלאומיות פשטוני הפך הלאומיות האפגני.
פשטוני ואלי היא אבן היסוד הראשונה, הלאומנות פשטוני הוא השני ללאומיות אפגניסטן היא השלב השלישי אבולוציונית של מבנה פוליטי.

הקודים הם;

* אמונה – אמון באלוהים (הידועה בשם “אללה”) הרעיון של אמון בבורא אחד.
* טוב מחשבות, מילים טובות, מעשים טובים – פשטוני חייב תמיד לחתור לחשוב מחשבות טובות, אומרת מילים טובות ולעשות מעשים טובים.
* התנהגות – פשטוני צריך להתנהג בכבוד כלפי כל היצירות לרבות אנשים, בעלי חיים ואיכות הסביבה סביבם. זיהום הסביבה ו / או להשמדתה נגד ואלי פשטוני.
* אחדות – מעל שפות הם דוברים, מעל הדם הם שומרים, מעל סכום הכסף שהם עושים, ואלי פשטוני המאחד את פשטוני כאחד האנשים ברחבי העולם. איפה יש אחדות אמיתית, כל מאמץ כדי disunite מהם ישמש אך ורק כדי לחזק את האחדות להם. מה קורה אחד – קורה לכל.
* שוויון – כל אדם הוא שווה. כל גבר רוצה לומר בעתיד שלו והוא יילחם על זכותו להיות דעותיו שמע. כל האנשים חייבים אפוא להתמודד אחד עם השני, בנימוס את הכבוד הנכון או ואיש לא יכול לכפות את רצונם על מנת אחרת.
* האירוח המקדש – להיות מסבירי פנים לכולם, במיוחד לאורחים, אפילו עוינת ביותר של אויבים עשויים (אם ביקש) יסופק, מקלט מקלט או הגנה כמו גם מזון וסיוע אחר.
* המשפטים סליחה – אם אחד במכוון עוולות אחרת, הקורבן יש זכות, אפילו חובה, כדי לנקום את העוול ביחס שווה. אם אחד יש לו עוול בכוונה, ואתה לא מחפשים צדק ולא העושה בסדר לבקש ממך סליחה שלו / שלה, ואז חוב, הוא חייב לך ע”י אותו / אותה, אשר יכול להיות רק מילא פעם אחת צדק (דרך מעשה נקמה או את ההחלטה של מועצת הג ‘ירגה) סופקה פיצוי על העוול שנעשה.
* האחים ואמון – האמונה כי הבחור אחים או אחיות פשטוני צריך להיות מהימן וסייע ככל האפשר.
* כבוד – פשטוני חייב לשמור על עצמאותם ועל כבוד האדם. כבוד יש חשיבות רבה בחברה פשטוני וחשוב מאוד לשמר כבוד של אחד או גאווה.
כבוד עצמי * – אנשים חייבים לכבד את עצמם ואחרים על מנת להיות מסוגלים לעשות זאת, במיוחד אלה שהם לא יודעים. כבוד מתחיל בבית, בין בני משפחה וקרובים.
* חמלה ושיתוף פעולה – העניים, החלשים, ואת תיגר חייב להיות נתמך. הכללה חייב להיות העדיף הדרה. כדי להתגונן מפני קבוצות עריצות, פאשיזם overzealous ו לעבוד חכם הראשון וקשה מכן.
* משפחה – המשפחה חייב להיות מהולל תחת הרשעה המקודש של האחריות והחובה ביחס לנשים, בנות, זקנים, הורים, בנים, בעליהן.
* אנחנו משפחה אחת – עמית פשטוני חייב להיות מטופל. אולי יש מאות שבטים, אבל יש להם אחד הגורל באיגוד אחד עם השני.
* הידע – פשטוני לחפש ידע אובייקטיבי בחיים, אומנות, מדע, תרבות, אשר נחשבים פירות שניתנו על ידי אלוהים.
* היסטוריה פשטוני – ערך רב מושם פשטוני, טרגדיות בהיסטוריה ניצחונות. זה מלמד פשטוני “לשמור על ראש פתוח, כדי להמשיך את החיפוש אחר האמת, הרבה מהם נעלם תחת ההיסטוריה עצמה”.
* להלחם הרשע – הרשע נמצאת במלחמה מתמדת עם טוב. הרע חייב להיות לחם טוב חייב לגבור על הרע. זוהי חובה פשטוני להילחם הרע כאשר הוא / היא מגיע פנים אל פנים עם זה.
* יושר יעוד – פשטוני ידועה קיום הבטחות שלהם להיות כנים בכל המצבים פעמים. פשטוני אמיתי לעולם לא להפר את ההבטחה שלהם.
* אירוח-פשטוני להתייחס לכל האורחים אנשים נכנסים לבתים שלהם עם כבוד רב ותמיד ללכת על ידי אחד אומר.

Pashtunwali – Hindi Version / पश्तून वली – हिन्दी संस्करण

पश्तून वाली एक अलिखित लोकतांत्रिक, सामाजिक और राजनीतिक संस्कृति, कानून और पख्तून समाज की विचारधारा, एक कानूनी और नैतिक कोड है कि सामाजिक व्यवस्था और जिम्मेदारियों को निर्धारित करता है के रूप में वर्तमान पीढ़ी को अपने पूर्वजों से विरासत में मिली और वाहक है.

यह है कि अफगानिस्तान और पाकिस्तान के पश्तून के अंतर्गत आता है, दुनिया भर में पश्तून समुदाय सहित एक प्राचीन “सम्मान का कोड है.” पश्तून एक प्राचीन पारंपरिक आध्यात्मिक, गले, और सांप्रदायिक पहचान नैतिक कोड और व्यवहार के नियमों का एक सेट है कि लचीला और गतिशील है, आधुनिक और प्राचीन सिद्धांतों से युक्त करने के लिए बंधे.
इस प्रणाली से पहले और बाद इस्लाम पख्तून समाज के सभी सामाजिक और आंतरिक मामलों में कामयाब रहा है. यह मध्य और दक्षिण एशिया में छोटे और बड़े स्थानीय सरकारों बनाया गया है और यह सामाजिक रूप से बहुमत से अभ्यास किया है.

पश्तून वली आत्म सम्मान, स्वतंत्रता, न्याय, सत्कार, प्रेम, क्षमा, और सभी की ओर सहिष्णुता को बढ़ावा देता है बदला, विशेष रूप से अजनबी और मेहमानों के लिए. आचरण के इन सभी कोड पश्तून समाज के भीतर सामाजिक और नैतिक नियंत्रण और संतुलन को बनाए रखने में सहायक होते हैं. यह हर पश्तून के एक निजी जिम्मेदारी माना जाता है पता चलता है और फिर से पश्तून वली सार और अर्थ की खोज की.

पख्तून राष्ट्रवाद आठ सदियों के लिए ’12 वीं सदी में पहली बार किसी राजनीतिक केंद्रीय सरकार का गठन और फिर मध्य 18 वीं शताब्दी में एक मजबूत केंद्रीकृत सरकार की स्थापना की.
सभी छोटे और बड़े जनजातियों और जातीय समूहों और सरकार के प्रशासन में सुधार के सुधार में और इसके विभिन्न आर्थिक, सामाजिक और सांस्कृतिक पहलुओं में भाग लिया. सामाजिक और आर्थिक मामलों में इन जातीय समूहों के बीच संबंधों को मजबूत बनाने के साथ, पख्तून राष्ट्रवाद अफगान राष्ट्रवाद में तब्दील हो गया था.
पश्तून वाली पहली नींव का पत्थर है, पख्तून राष्ट्रवाद दूसरे नंबर पर है और अफगान राष्ट्रवाद राजनीतिक संरचना के तीसरे और विकासवादी चरण है.

कोड रहे हैं;

* विश्वास – भगवान (के रूप में ‘अल्लाह’ में जाना) एक निर्माता में भरोसा करने की धारणा में विश्वास करते हैं.
* अच्छा विचार, अच्छा शब्द, शुभ कर्म – एक पश्तून हमेशा अच्छे विचारों को सोच, अच्छे शब्द बोल रहा है और अच्छे कर्म करने की दिशा में प्रयास करना चाहिए.
* व्यवहार – पश्तून सम्मान से लोगों, पशुओं और उनके आसपास के वातावरण सहित सभी रचनाओं के प्रति व्यवहार करना चाहिए. पर्यावरण के प्रदूषण और / या उसके विनाश पश्तून वली के खिलाफ है.
* एकता – भाषाओं वे खून वे पैसे की राशि है कि वे कर से ऊपर रखने के लिए,, पश्तून वाली दुनिया भर में एक लोगों के रूप में पश्तून एकजुट ऊपर बात करते हैं, ऊपर. जहां सत्य एकता, हर बांटना उन्हें केवल करने के लिए एकता वे मजबूत बनाने की सेवा करेंगे प्रयास है. क्या एक को होता है – सभी को होता है.
* समानता – हर आदमी बराबर है. हर आदमी चाहता है एक अपने भविष्य में कहते हैं और वह अपने अधिकार के लिए लड़ने के लिए है अपनी राय सुना होगा. इसलिए सभी लोगों को एक दूसरे के साथ उचित सभ्यता या सम्मान करते हैं और कोई दूसरी को उनकी मर्जी लगाया जा सकता है एक के साथ सौदा होगा.
* आतिथ्य और अभयारण्य – होने के नाते हर किसी के लिए सत्कारशील है, और मेहमानों के लिए विशेष रूप से, यहां तक कि सबसे दुश्मनों के प्रतिकूल हो सकता है (यदि पूछा) अभयारण्य शरण, या संरक्षण के रूप में अच्छी तरह से भोजन और अन्य सहायता प्रदान की है.
* और न्यायमूर्ति क्षमा – यदि एक जानबूझकर एक और खामियों, शिकार अधिकार, यहां तक कि एक दायित्व, के बराबर अनुपात में इस अन्याय का बदला लेने की है. यदि एक जानबूझकर तुम्हारे साथ गलत है, और तुम न्याय नहीं चाहते और न ही किया था गलत कर्ता आप उसे अपनी माफी माँगने के लिए, एक ऋण तो है, उसके द्वारा आप के लिए होता था / उसकी है, जो केवल एक बार न्याय को पूरा कर सकते हैं एक अधिनियम के माध्यम से (हो बदला या जिरगा परिषद के निर्णय) के लिए गलत किया मुआविज़ा प्रदान की गई है.
* ब्रदरहुड और विश्वास – विश्वास है कि पश्तून साथी भाई या बहन और भरोसेमंद होना चाहिए बड़ी संभव हद तक सहायता प्रदान की.
* ऑनर – पश्तून अपनी स्वतंत्रता और मानवीय गरिमा को बनाए रखने चाहिए. न्यायाधीश पश्तून समाज और इसकी बहुत महत्वपूर्ण में बहुत महत्व है एक सम्मान या गौरव को बनाए रखने की है.
* स्व सम्मान – व्यक्ति खुद को और दूसरों का सम्मान करने के लिए ऐसा करने के लिए, खासकर जो वे नहीं जानते कि सक्षम होना चाहिए. सम्मान घर पर परिवार के सदस्यों और रिश्तेदारों के बीच शुरू होता है.
* और करुणा सहयोग – गरीब, कमजोर, और चुनौती दी समर्थित होना चाहिए. शामिल किए जाने के बहिष्करण को प्राथमिकता दी जानी चाहिए. करने के लिए अत्याचार, फासीवाद और अति उत्साही समूहों के खिलाफ की रक्षा करने के लिए और काम स्मार्ट पहली और फिर मुश्किल है.
* परिवार – परिवार पत्नियों, बेटियों, बुजुर्गों, माता पिता, पुत्र, पति और के लिए सम्मान के साथ एक जिम्मेदारी और कर्तव्य की पवित्र विश्वास के तहत महिमा होना चाहिए.
साथी पश्तून के लिए परवाह किया जाना चाहिए – * हम एक परिवार हैं. वहाँ जनजातियों के सैकड़ों हो सकता है, लेकिन वे एक दूसरे के साथ संघ में एक भाग्य है.
पश्तून जीवन, कला, विज्ञान और संस्कृति में उद्देश्य ज्ञान, जो परमेश्वर की ओर से दी गई फल माना जाता है की तलाश – ज्ञान *.
पश्तून इतिहास * – ग्रेट मूल्य पश्तून इतिहास त्रासदियों और जीत में रखा गया है. यह पश्तून सिखाता है “के लिए खुले मन रखने के लिए, सत्य की खोज जारी है, जिनमें से बहुत ही इतिहास में गायब हो गया है”.
* बुराई से लड़ने – ईविल अच्छा के साथ लगातार युद्ध में है. बुराई और लड़ा जाना चाहिए बुराई पर अच्छाई प्रबल होगा. यह एक पश्तून को बुराई से लड़ने जब वह / वह चेहरा आता है इसके साथ सामना कर्तव्य है.
* ईमानदारी और वादा – एक पश्तून अपने वादे रखने और सभी परिस्थितियों और समय पर ईमानदार होने के लिए जाना जाता है. एक सच पश्तून अपना वादा कभी नहीं टूटेगा.
* आतिथ्य-पश्तून सभी मेहमानों और जो लोग महान सम्मान के साथ उनके घरों में प्रवेश करने और हमेशा एक से जाना कह इलाज.

Pashtunwali – Persian Version / ولی پشتون — نسخه فارسی

پشتون ولی نانوشته دموکراتیک ، اجتماعی و سیاسی فرهنگ ، قانون و ایدئولوژی از جامعه پشتون ، از پدران و حامل خود را به نسل حاضر به عنوان یک کد حقوقی و اخلاقی که تعیین کننده نظم اجتماعی و مسئولیت های به ارث برده است.

این باستان “کد افتخار” که متعلق به پشتون ها از افغانستان و پاکستان ، از جمله جوامع پشتون در سراسر جهان است. پشتون ها در آغوش سنتی باستانی ، معنوی ، و هویت جمعی به مجموعه ای از کدهای اخلاقی و قواعد رفتار است که انعطاف پذیر و پویا ، که حاوی اصول مدرن و باستان گره خورده است.
این سیستم تمام امور اجتماعی و درونی جامعه پشتون قبل و بعد از اسلام اداره می شود. این را ایجاد کرده است دولت های بزرگ و کوچک محلی در آسیای مرکزی و جنوبی است و اجتماعی توسط اکثریت انجام می شود.

پشتون ولی ترویج احترام به خود ، استقلال ، عدالت ، مهمان نوازی ، عشق ، بخشش ، انتقام و تحمل نسبت به همه ، به خصوص به غریبه ها و مهمانان. همه این کدهای رفتاری هستند مفید در حفظ چک های اخلاقی و اجتماعی و توازن ، در درون جامعه پشتون. است در نظر گرفته مسئولیت شخصی هر پشتون را به کشف و دوباره کشف ذات و معنی پشتون ولی.

برای 8 قرن ‘ناسیونالیسم پشتون سیاسی دولت مرکزی برای اولین بار در قرن 12th شکل گرفته و پس از آن یک دولت قوی مرکزی در اواسط قرن 18 تاسیس شده است.
همه گروه های کوچک و بزرگ قبایل و اقوام و شرکت در اصلاح و بهبود از دولت دولت و مختلف آن در جنبه های اقتصادی ، اجتماعی و فرهنگی است. با تقویت روابط میان این گروه های قومی در امور اجتماعی و اقتصادی ، ناسیونالیسم را به ناسیونالیسم پشتون افغانستان تبدیل شده است.
پشتون است ولی سنگ پایه اول ، ناسیونالیسم پشتون دوم است و ملی گرایی افغانی است مرحله سوم و تکامل ساختار سیاسی است.

کد هستند ؛

* ایمان — اعتماد به خدا (معروف به “خدا”) مفهوم اعتماد به خالق یکی.
* افکار خوب ، خوب واژه ها ، کردار نیک — پشتون باید همیشه نسبت به افکار خوب ، زبان گفتار نیک و انجام عمل صالح تلاش.
* رفتار — پشتون ها با احترام رفتار می کنند باید نسبت به تمام مخلوقات از جمله انسانها ، جانوران و محیط اطراف آنها را. آلودگی محیط زیست و / یا تخریب آن است ولی در برابر پشتون.
* وحدت — بالاتر از زبان آنها صحبت می کنند ، بالاتر از خون آنها را نگهداری کرد ، بالاتر از مقدار پول آنها را ، ولی پشتون متحد پشتون به عنوان یک نفر در سراسر جهان است. درست است که در آن وحدت ، هر تلاش برای جدا کردن آنها را تنها در خدمت وحدت آنها برای تقویت وجود دارد. چه اتفاقی می افتد به یک — اتفاق می افتد به همه.
* برابری — هر مرد برابر است. هر مردی می خواهد در آینده اش می گویند و او را برای حق خود مبارزه به آراء و نظرات او شنیده می شود. همه مردم به همین خاطر باید با یکدیگر برخورد ، با نزاکت مناسب و یا احترام و هیچ کس نمی تواند اراده خود بر خود را به دیگری تحمیل کنند.
* مهمان نوازی و پناهگاه — مهمان نواز بودن به همه و بهخصوص به مهمان ها ، حتی دشمن ترین دشمنان ممکن است (در صورتی که برای خواسته) ارائه شود محراب ، پناهندگی و یا حفاظت و همچنین مواد غذایی و سایر کمک ها.
* عدالت و بخشش — اگر کسی عمدا خطاهای دیگر ، قربانی حق دارد ، حتی تعهد ، به انتقام این بی عدالتی به نسبت برابر است. اگر کسی عمدا به شما ستم ، و تو عدالت به دنبال ندارد و نه ستمکار از شما درخواست برای / بخشش خود را ، پس بدهی ، توسط او را به تو بدهکار / او ، که تنها می تواند یک بار تحقق عدالت (از طریق عمل انتقام یا تصمیم شورای جرگه) ارائه شده است به پاداش اشتباه انجام می شود.
* اخوان و اعتماد — اعتقاد به این که برادران پشتون ها یا خواهران باید مورد اعتماد و کمک به بیشترین حد ممکن است.
* افتخار — باید استقلال خود را پشتون و کرامت انسانی را حفظ کند. افتخار دارای اهمیت زیادی در جامعه پشتون و آن را بسیار مهم برای حفظ افتخار یک یا غرور.
* احترام به خود — افراد باید خود و دیگران به منظور قادر به انجام این کار ، به ویژه کسانی که آنها نمی دانند که احترام. احترام را در خانه آغاز می شود ، در میان اعضای خانواده و بستگان.
* شفقت و همکاری — فقیر ، ضعیف است ، و باید به چالش کشیده پشتیبانی می کند. ورود باید به محرومیت ترجیح داده میشود. برای دفاع در برابر استبداد ، فاشیسم و بیش از متعصب گروه ها و به کار هوشمند برای اولین بار و پس از آن سخت است.
* خانواده — خانواده باید تحت محکومیت مقدس از مسئولیت و وظیفه را با احترام به همسر ، فرزند ، بزرگان ، والدین ، فرزندان ، همسران و ستایش.
* ما یک خانواده — همکار پشتون باید برای اهمیت نداده ام. ممکن است صدها نفر از قبایل ، اما آنها در سرنوشت یک اتحادیه با یکدیگر.
* دانش — پشتون ها به دنبال دانش هدف در زندگی ، هنر ، علوم ، و فرهنگ را که در نظر گرفته میوه داده شده توسط خدا.
* پشتون تاریخ — ارزش بزرگ است در پشتون تاریخ ، تراژدی و پیروزی قرار گرفته است. می آموزد پشتون “به نگه داشتن ذهن باز ، برای ادامه جستجو برای حقیقت ، بسیاری از است که در زیر تاریخ خود از میان رفت”.
* مبارزه با شر — شیطان در جنگ مداوم با خوب است. ایول باید مبارزه کرد و خوب باید بر شر غلبه کنی. این وظیفه پشتون ها برای مبارزه با بد وقتی که او / او دارد می آید چهره به چهره با آن است.
* صداقت و قول — پشتون است برای نگه داشتن وعده های خود و صادق بودن در همه شرایط و زمان شناخته شده است. پشتون درست خواهد شد به عهد خود هرگز از.
* نوازی – پشتون درمان همه مهمانان و کسانی که وارد خانه خود را با احترام فراوان و همیشه به توسط یکی گفت.

Pashtunwali – Arabic Version / الباشتون — النسخة العربية

البشتون والي هو غير مكتوب الديمقراطية والاجتماعية والسياسية والثقافة ، والقانون والايديولوجية للمجتمع البشتون ، ورثت من أجدادهم والناقل للجيل الحالي باعتباره رمز القانونية والأخلاقية التي تحدد النظام والمسؤوليات الاجتماعية.

ومن قديمة “ميثاق شرف” الذي ينتمي إلى قبائل البشتون في أفغانستان وباكستان ، بما في ذلك مجتمعات البشتون في جميع أنحاء العالم. البشتون احتضان قديمة التقليدية والروحية ، والهوية الطائفية مرتبطة مجموعة من القواعد الأخلاقية وقواعد السلوك التي تتسم بالمرونة والديناميكية ، التي تتضمن المبادئ الحديثة والقديمة.
تمكنت هذا النظام جميع الشؤون الاجتماعية والداخلية للمجتمع الباشتون قبل الإسلام وبعده. وقد أنشأت الحكومات المحلية الصغيرة والكبيرة في وسط وجنوب آسيا ويمارس اجتماعيا من قبل الأغلبية.

البشتون والي يشجع احترام الذات والاستقلال والعدالة ، والضيافة ، والحب والتسامح والانتقام والتسامح تجاه الجميع ، ولا سيما إلى الغرباء والضيوف. كل هذه مدونات قواعد السلوك التي تساعد في الحفاظ على الشيكات الاجتماعية والأخلاقية والتوازنات داخل المجتمع البشتون. وهو يعتبر مسؤولية شخصية كل من البشتون لاكتشاف وإعادة اكتشاف جوهر ومعنى الولي البشتون.

لمدة 8 قرون ‘تشكيل حكومة قومية الباشتون السياسية المركزية لأول مرة في القرن 12th ، وأنشأ ثم تشكيل حكومة مركزية قوية في منتصف القرن 18.
وشارك جميع المجموعات الصغيرة والكبيرة والقبائل العرقية في إصلاح وتحسين الإدارة الحكومية وفي كافة جوانبه الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية. مع تعزيز العلاقات بين هذه الجماعات العرقية في الشؤون الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ، تحولت إلى قومية الباشتون القومية الأفغانية.
البشتون والي هو حجر الأساس الأول ، الباشتون القومية في المرتبة الثانية والقومية الافغانية هي المرحلة الثالثة والتطورية للبنية السياسية.

الرموز هي ؛

* الإيمان — الثقة في الله (المعروف باسم “الله”) مفهوم الثقة في الخالق واحد.
* خاطرة جيد ، جيد الكلمات ، الصالح — من الباشتون يجب أن نسعى دائما نحو التفكير الأفكار الجيدة ، والكلام جيد والعمل الصالح.
* سلوك — يجب أن تتصرف باحترام البشتون تجاه جميع المخلوقات بما في ذلك البشر والحيوانات والبيئة المحيطة بهم. تلوث البيئة و / أو تدميرها هو الولي ضد البشتون.
* الوحدة — فوق يتكلمون لغات ، وفوق أنها تبقي الدم ، وفوق مبلغ من المال لأنها تحقق ، البشتون والي يوحد البشتون كشعب واحد في جميع أنحاء العالم. حيث هناك وحدة وطنية حقيقية ، كل جهد ممكن لفكك منهم لن تؤدي إلا إلى تعزيز وحدة لديهم. ماذا يحدث لاحد — يحدث للجميع.
* المساواة — كل رجل هو على قدم المساواة. كل رجل يريد القول في مستقبله وقال انه سيدافع عن حقه في أن يكون رأيه مسموعا. ويجب على جميع الناس على التعامل بالتالي مع بعضها البعض ، مع الكياسة والاحترام السليم أو لا يجوز لأحد أن تفرض إرادتها على آخر.
* الضيافة والملاذ — كوني مضيافة للجميع ، وخاصة للضيوف ، حتى أشد الناس عداوة للأعداء أيار / مايو (إذا طلبت) أن توفر الملاذ واللجوء أو الحماية وكذلك المواد الغذائية والمساعدات الأخرى.
* العدل والغفران — إذا كان أحد الأخطاء عمدا آخر ، ضحية الحق ، بل واجب ، للانتقام من هذا الظلم في نسبة متساوية. إذا كان قد ظلمت عمدا واحدة لك ، وأنك لم السعي لتحقيق العدالة وليس للظالم أطلب منكم الصفح وظيفته ، ثم الدين ، ويعود إليكم من له / لها ، والتي يمكن أن تتحقق العدالة إلا مرة واحدة (من خلال فعل وقدمت الانتقام أو قرار من مجلس جيرغا) لتعويض الخطأ القيام به.
* الأخوة والثقة — في اعتقادهم بأنه ينبغي زميل موثوق بها الاخوة البشتون أو الأخوات وساعدت إلى أقصى حد ممكن.
* الشرف — يجب أن البشتون المحافظة على استقلاله وكرامة الإنسان. الشرف وأهمية كبيرة في المجتمع وأهميتها البشتون جدا للحفاظ على شرف واحد أو الفخر.
* احترام الذات — يجب أن يكون الأفراد احترام أنفسهم والآخرين من أجل أن تكون قادرة على القيام بذلك ، لا سيما انهم لا يعرفون. احترام تبدأ من البيت ، بين أفراد الأسرة والأقارب.
ولا بد من دعم الفقراء والضعفاء ، وتحدى — * التراحم والتعاون. يجب أن يكون من المفضل لإدراج الإقصاء. للدفاع ضد الجماعات الاستبداد والفاشية والتفاني والعمل على أول الذكية ويصعب بعد ذلك.
* الأسرة — يجب أن يمجد العائلة تحت قناعة مقدسة من مسؤولية وواجب مع احترام وزوجات بناته ، والشيوخ والآباء والأزواج والأبناء.
* ونحن عائلة واحدة — يجب أن يهتم لزميل البشتون. قد يكون هناك المئات من القبائل ، ولكن لديهم مصير واحد في الاتحاد مع بعضها البعض.
* المعرفة — البشتون طلب العلم الهدف في الحياة والفن والعلوم والثقافة ، والتي تعتبر الفواكه التي يمنحها الله.
* تاريخ البشتون — يتم وضع قيمة كبيرة في المآسي البشتون والتاريخ والانتصارات. أنه يعلم البشتون “للحفاظ على عقل منفتح ، لمواصلة البحث عن الحقيقة ، والكثير منها قد اختفت تحت التاريخ نفسه”.
* محاربة الشر — الشر هو في حالة حرب مستمرة مع جيدة. يجب محاربة الشر والخير يجب أن تنتصر على الشر. ومن واجب البشتون لمحاربة الشر عندما كان عليه أن يأتي وجها لوجه معها.
* الصدق والوعد — هو معروف من الباشتون لحفظ وعودهم وصادقة في جميع الحالات والأوقات. وسوف البشتون صحيح أبدا كسر عودهم.
* الضيافة والبشتون معاملة جميع الضيوف والناس الذين يدخلون بيوتهم مع احترام كبير ودائما من جانب واحد قائلا.

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