Just another WordPress.com site

Posts tagged ‘african union’

Maummar Gaddafi – Brotherly Leader not so Brotherly

Introduction: In 1969 when Libyans witnessed a bloodless coup against their ruler King Idris lead by a 27 year old military colonel named Maummar Abu Minyar al Gaddafi also popularly known as Col; Gaddafi born on 7 June 1942 in a Bedouin family in a Libyan town of Sirt, who knows that the this child born in such a simple & nomadic family will become a Great Dictator of all Modern Times. Gaddafi has been a leader of Libya since then. After relinquishing the title of Prime Minister in 1972, he has been accorded the honorifics “Guide of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya” or Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution in government statements and the official press. At the start of his rule he introduced various reforms & transformed the country from a Monarch ruled state into a more democratic people’s republic. He then later on introduced the policy of direct governance which he popularly famed as greater democracy or Jamahiriya. But after few years of his rule his actions now shows signs of a harsh dictatorship. He banned media & put controls of press freedom & information accessibility. He now started supporting the anti Western approach which resulted in regional concerns raised by the western allies as they were now seeing him as complete supporter of terrorists’ organizations & PLO. In 1973 when Libya invaded Chad over the dispute of Aouzou Strip which came to an end by the peaceful settlement & withdrawal of Libyan Troops from Chad in 1994. During this period his actions have worsened the relation with Egypt & as with most of the Arab world. So, Gaddafi sought relations with Soviet Bloc & became the first soviet ally country outside the Soviet bloc to receive the MIG-25 combat fighters. In the 1970s & 1980s Gaddafi’s politics had mostly supported for the liberation movements in West Africa & sponsoring international terrorism. He is also been accused as the main sponsor of the Black September Movement which perpetrated the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics, and was accused by the United States of being responsible for direct control of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing that killed three people and wounded more than 200, of whom a substantial number were U.S servicemen. He had been accused for the Pan Am Flight which came crashing in Lockerbie Scotland & UTA Flight 772 (1989) bombings.

Due to his anti-western policy, Gaddafi gained a negative reputation in western media and diplomatic circles. Referring to his criticism of moderate and pro-western Arab leaders, a US diplomat in 1974 remarked: “While he and his regime do not have reputation among Libyans for spilling blood, we suspect this zealot is capable of justifying in his own mind any attempt to assassinate [Egyptian President] Sadat.” On the other hand, Egyptian diplomat Omar Hefni Mahmoud, at a private conversation, characterized Gaddafi as “brash ‘pure’ young man who had not become corrupted by politics yet.” However, in 1976 another US diplomat referred to Gaddafi as “a more practical and pragmatic politician than we had given him credit for.”

Tensions between Libya and the West reached a peak during the Ronald Reagan administration, which tried to overthrow Gaddafi. The Reagan administration viewed Libya as a belligerent rogue state because of its uncompromising stance on Palestinian independence, its support for revolutionary Iran in the 1980–1988 war against Saddam Hussein’s Iraq Iran–Iraq War, and its backing of liberation movements in the developing world. Reagan himself dubbed Gaddafi the “mad dog of the Middle East”. Sanctions & Isolation: An alleged plot by Britain’s secret intelligence service to assassinate Colonel Gaddafi, when rebels attacked Gaddafi’s motorcade near the city of Sirt in February 1996, was described as “pure fantasy” by former foreign secretary Robin Cook, although the FCO later admitted: “We have never denied that we knew of plots against Gaddafi.” All this has lead to imposing of economic sanctions by US in March 1982 since then the relations between the West & Libya deteriorated further leading to economic crisis in Libya. By now Libyan have already realized that their brotherly leader whom he loved & supported all these years, whose career they had nurtured through their veins have now fallen short of his promises & have lead their country to miserable isolation & their leader is now not so brotherly as they have believed him so. The news of corruption & about his enormous wealth is now been coming out in media from long on but to their misery there are no measures which the brotherly leader have taken yet to improve the situation of his people as they are now been deprived from basic facilities like water. Though, few reformed policies have kept a flow of European investments but they are not enough to be met a rising demand of employment & infrastructure. Gaddafi is reported to have amassed a fortune for himself and his family of 60 billion dollars, including shares in Tamoil and one of Italy’s largest banks Unicredit.

9/11 & New Era: When 9/11 happened & US launched his War on Terror which gained momentum year after year whose first victims became Afghanistan & Iraq, in August 2003, two years after Abdelbaset al-Megrahi’s conviction, Libya wrote to the United Nations formally accepting ‘responsibility for the actions of its officials’ in respect of the Lockerbie bombing and agreed to pay compensation of up to US$2.7 billion – or up to US$10 million each – to the families of the 270 victims. The same month, Britain and Bulgaria co-sponsored a UN resolution which removed the suspended sanctions. Libya pledged its commitment to fighting al-Qa’ida and offered to open up its weapons programme to international inspection. Following the attacks of 11 September, Gaddafi made one of the first, and firmest, denunciations of the Al-Qaeda bombers by any Muslim leader. Following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein by US forces in 2003, Gaddafi announced that his nation had active weapons of mass destruction program, but was willing to allow international inspectors into his country to observe and dismantle them. US President George W. Bush and other supporters of the Iraq War portrayed Gaddafi’s announcement as a direct consequence of the Iraq War by stating that Gaddafi acted out of fear for the future of his own regime if he continued to keep and conceal his weapons. In the run-up to Blair’s visit, the British ambassador in Tripoli, Anthony Layden, explained Libya’s and Gaddafi’s political change thus:

“35 years of total state control of the economy has left them in a situation where they’re simply not generating enough economic activity to give employment to the young people who are streaming through their successful education system. I think this dilemma goes to the heart of Colonel Gaddafi’s decision that he needed a radical change of direction.”

On 4 March 2008 Gaddafi announced his intention to dissolve the country’s existing administrative structure and disburse oil revenue directly to the people. The plan includes abolishing all ministries, except those of defence, internal security, and foreign affairs, and departments implementing strategic projects. In June 2008, Gaddafi strongly criticised US presidential candidate Barack Obama for saying Jerusalem should remain the undivided capital of Israel, “The statements of our Kenyan brother of American.  nationality, Obama, on Jerusalem … show that he either ignores international politics and did not study the Middle East conflict or that it is a campaign lie.” All these political steps & reforms didn’t spare Gaddafi for his long forced rule which has been triumphed as the longest rule by any non royal leader over a country spanning 41 years. With the death of Omar Bongo of Gabon on 8 June 2009, he became the longest serving of all current non-royal national leaders and he is one of the longest serving rulers in history. He is also the longest-serving ruler of Libya since Libya, then Tripoli, became an Ottoman province in 1551.

As of February 2011, as part of the 2010–2011 Middle East and North Africa protests, the 2011 Libyan protests are ongoing, and have become a mass uprising against Gaddafi, who has lost control of most parts of the country. After Adolf Hitler may be he become a Libyan Furor as he has not even his people who are protesting against him & are fighting for their rights. He as used all the means of torture & weaponry against those people who had one day lifted him in their arms, who had looked him for generations as their brother, as their friend, as their shining leader who will one day changed their lives & bestowed them with happiness & prosperity. But the before the sun rise the shadow of growth had already darkens. So, how long one can force his rules which are not welcome by his family of Jamahiriya, at some or the other point the tide has to be turned by the people themselves who used to be the brothers & family of the leader who is not so brotherly.

Dictators of Africa – Part 7

Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi Libya 1969 – present

Also known simply as Colonel Gaddafi; born 7 June 1942) has been the de facto leader of Libya since a coup in 1969. From 1972, when Gaddafi relinquished the title of prime minister, he has been accorded the honorifics “Guide of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya” or “Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution” in government statements and the official press. With the death of Omar Bongo of Gabon on 8 June 2009, he became the longest serving of all current non-royal national leaders. He is also the longest-serving ruler of Libya since Libya, then Tripoli, became an Ottoman province in 1551.

Yahya Jammeh – Gambia – 1994–Present

President of Gambia. Gained power in coup d’état. Right to the press and free speech suppressed. Stood for three elections (1996, 2001, and 2006); last election deemed unfair by opposition.

Laurent-Désiré Kabila – Congo-Kinshasa – 1997–2001

President of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko in coup. No elections held during ongoing, interstate First and Second Congo Wars.

Charles G. Taylor – Liberia – 1997–2003

President of Liberia 1997-2003. Elected, but widely described as a dictator. Linked to “blood diamonds” and illegal arms trading. Believed to have interfered frequently in the internal affairs of neighboring states while a warlord, before his election to the presidency.

François Bozizé – Central African Republic – 2003–present

President of the Central African Republic 2003 to date. Gained power in a coup and suspended the constitution, though he has restored some democracy.

Ely Ould Mohamed Vall – Mauritania – 2005–2007

Chairman of the Military Council for Justice and Democracy. Gained power via a military coup. Though he has said to relinquish power to an elected government in 2007.

 

Dictators of Africa – Part 4

Mohamed Siad Barre – Somalia – 1969–1991

Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council 1969-1976; President of Somalia 1976-1991. In 1969, during the power vacuum following the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, the military staged a coup and took over. Barre was to rule for the next twenty-two years. He attempted to develop a personality cult; large posters of him were common in the capital Mogadishu during his reign, many of which can still be seen today. He dreamed of a “Greater Somalia” and tried unsuccessfully to annex the Ogaden—legally Ethiopian territory—in 1977 to realize this end (see Ogaden War).

Anwar Sadat – Egypt – 1970–1981

President of Egypt 1970-1981. Unelected, suppressed opposition in what was termed “The Corrective Revolution”, Assassinated.

Idi Amin – Uganda – 1971–1979

President of Uganda, later (1976) declared as for Life. Deposed in 1979 after declaring war on Tanzania.

Mengistu Haile Mariam – Ethiopia – 1974–1991

Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council (Derg) in 1974 and 1977–1987; President of Ethiopia 1987-1991. One-party state; repression of opposition; tens of thousands of extrajudicial killings.

Olusegun Obasanjo – Nigeria – 1976–1979

Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria between 1976 and 1979. Elected President of Nigeria in 1999. Chairman of the African Union 2004-2006.

Jean-Baptiste Bagaza – Burundi – 1976–1987

President of Burundi. Widely described as a military dictator.

Albert René – Seychelles – 1977–2004

President of Seychelles. Deposed the elected president Sir James Mancham and promulgated a one-party constitution after a period of rule by decree. Created the National Youth Service (NYS), a compulsory educational institution that included traditional curricula interlaced with political indoctrination and paramilitary training.

 

Dictators of Africa – Part 2

Felix Houphouët-Boigny – Côte d’Ivoire 1960–1993

President of Côte d’Ivoire. Ruled until 1990 with all opposition banned, but not considered particularly repressive. Relocated the official capital to his home village of Yamoussoukro and constructed the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, the largest religious structure in Africa.

Milton Obote – Uganda – 1962–1972, 1980–1985

Prime Minister of Uganda 1962-1966; President of Uganda 1966-1971 and 1980-1985. Suspended the constitution and declared himself President and Prime Minister in 1966.

Hastings Kamuzu Banda – Malawi – 1963–1994

Prime Minister of Malawi 1963-1966; President of Malawi 1966-1994. Banned all opposition in 1966; declared himself President for Life in 1971; exiled and killed opposition leaders. Ordered that a letter bomb be sent to exiled opposition leader Attati Mpakati; suspected of being involved in the car crash deaths of senior Congress Party leaders; violently crushed an attempted rebellion. Aged 98, he allowed and lost a free election in 1994.

Kenneth Kaunda – Zambia – 1964–1991

President of the Republic of Zambia 1964-1991.Elected 1964, banned all political parties in Zambia, viewed himself as “WAMUYAYA” (eternal President).Accused of torturing political opponents. Defeated by Frederick Chiluba in 1991.

Houari Boumediene – Algeria – 1965–1978

President of Algeria from June 19, 1965 to his death, (December 27, 1978); Chairman of the Revolutionary Council until December 12, 1976).

In June 1965, Boumédienne seized power in a bloodless coup. Initially lacking a personal power base, he was seen as a weak ruler. But after a botched coup attempt against him by military officers in 1967 he tightened his rule, and then remained Algeria’s undisputed ruler until his death in 1978.

Jean-Bédel Bokassa – Central African Republic – 1966–1979

President of the Central African Republic 1966-1976; Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire 1976-1979. Bokassa overthrew the autocratic Dacko in a swift coup d’état and assumed power as president of the Republic and head of the sole political party, the Mouvement pour l’évolution sociale de l’Afrique Noire (MESAN). Bokassa abolished the constitution of 1959 on January 4 and began to rule by decree. He proclaimed himself emperor in 1976.


Dictators of Africa – Part 1

Gamal Abdel Nasser – Egypt – 1954–1970

Prime Minister of Egypt 1954-1962; President of Egypt 1956-1970. Part of a group of officers in control of Egypt after the coup against British supported King Farouk in 1952; In February 1954, Egyptian Statesman. A graduate of the Royal Military Academy, Gamal Abdel Nasser first rose to prominence as an officer in the first Arab-Israeli war, where he gained recognition for holding out for three weeks in 1948 while his battalion was surrounded in what came to be known as the “Faluja Pocket”. Nasser forced President Muhammad Naguib to appoint him prime minister and give up most practical power to him; later in that year Naguib resigned and Nasser became president by self-appointment; elected by popular vote (as only candidate) in 1956, and subsequently. Many personalistic elements to Nasser’s rule, but nominal parliamentary system under Nasser’s 1956-1970 presidency until his death in 1970.

Ahmed Sékou Touré – Guinea – 1958–1984

President of Guinea. Widely described as a dictator with estimates of up to 50,000 extrajudicial killings during his rule and 250,000 Guineans fleeing his rule.

David Dacko – Central African Republic – 1960–1966, 1979–1981

President of the Central African Republic. Banned opposition; Gained power by coup in 1979, though subsequently stood for election

Modibo Keita – Mali – 1960–1968

Schoolteacher and first president of Mali. Forced socialization and extensive protectionism severely harmed the economy and continued the country’s dependence on aid donors. Discontent with these policies led Keita to implement his own “Cultural Revolution” and establish a network of people’s militias to inform on and punish dissent. In the last few years of his presidency, full powers were vested in an extralegal “National Committee for Defense of the Revolution”. He was deposed in a military coup.

François Tombalbaye – Chad – 1960–1975

Head of State 1960-1962; President of Chad 1962-1975. Never fought a contested election; imprisoned opposition leaders. Launched a “Cultural Revolution” in the early 1970s encouraging authenticité.

Moktar Ould Daddah – Mauritania – 1960–1978

President of Mauritania 1960-1978. Elected President upon independence from France; merged four largest parties into Mauritanian People’s Party, which he made the sole legal party; changed constitution in 1964 to make one party state with authoritarian Presidency; re-elected uncontested three times (1966, 1971 and 1976); overthrown by military in 1978 due to dissatisfaction with the War in Western Sahara.

 

Tag Cloud