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Posts tagged ‘Hosni Mubarak’

Arab Leaders Take Strong Measures – Middle East Crisis

King of Bahrain handing out 2728$ per family after Mubarak was pressured to resign.

Many of Egypt and Tunisia’s neighbors have tried to adopt cautious reforms to stop similar protest movements in their own countries. On Thursday, the King of Jordan, King Abdullah, formed a new government with both an Islamist and five left-wing politicians among the 26 ministers after recent weeks where protesters in Amman demanded political and economic changes. Prime Minister Mohammed Abu Hammur has a difficult job as he needs to calm down the protesters who demand cheaper food and energy. At the same time he must reassure the World Bank and the United States, who fear that the economy is out of hand again with subsidies.

The little Gulf state Bahrain has a history with strong conflicts among Sunni and Shia Muslims and already last summer huge violent riots occurred. While Shiites form the majority, the Sunnis have the control. Although Bahrain has a parliamentary system, many Shiites feel that they have a harder time getting access to public benefits and jobs than sunnimuslims have. Monday is the 10th anniversary for the country’s constitution, and it has been notified of demonstrations. Precisely for close ties to the United States was one of the objections against the Mubarak regime in Egypt, and the same thing is been said about Bahrain. So as a solution, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, announced on Friday that all families will receive 2728$ to stop the planned protests.

U.S. allies in the Middle East have put hard pressure on Washington to keep a protective hand over Hosni Mubarak. Along with Jordan, countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE and Israel warned of the spread of contagion if Mubarak is expelled. Saudi Arabia is America’s other strong allies in the Arab countries.

In Kuwait, all demonstrations have been banned after yesterday’s Friday prayers in mosques.

This week it was suddenly possible to get in on Facebook and YouTube in Syria who follows after the neighbouring countries as these popular sites have been closed for three years.

Iranian television announced that Mubarak’s departure is a major victory for the Egyptian people but the opposition leader Mehdi Karroubi was placed under house arrest after he called for demonstrations on Monday. The aim of the demonstrations was to show support for the rebellion in Egypt and Tunisia.

In Yemen proclaimed President Ali Abdullah Saleh is already in early February that he will not seek re-election and that he did not want his son to take over power in the country. He has tried to calm the protests by promising half of the level of taxation and impose price controls on food.

Dictators of Africa – Part 5

Daniel arap Moi – Kenya  – 1978–2002

President of Kenya. Changed constitution to establish a de jure one-party state; resorted to repressive rule, including torture and imprisonment without trial.

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo – Equatorial Guinea – 1979–present

Chairman of the Supreme Military Council 1979-1982; President of Equatorial Guinea 1982–present. Deposed his uncle in a violent coup; opposition is banned in all but name.

José Eduardo dos Santos – Angola – 1979–present

President of Angola. One-party state; did not stand for election until 1992.

João Bernardo Vieira – Guinea-Bissau – 1980–1984 and 2005–present

Become president by a coup. Killing and exiled opposition. Famous for the Guinea-Bissau Civil War.

Samuel K. Doe – Liberia – 1980–1990

Chairman of the People’s Redemption Council 1980-1984; President of Liberia 1984-1990. Gained power in a military coup that killed President William R. Tolbert, Jr., a reformer. Promoted Krahn chauvinism and “died a multi-millionaire and proud owner of mansions and estates”.

Robert Mugabe – Zimbabwe – 1980–present

Gained power through election, and repeatedly re-elected, but criticized for steps used to maintain power. From 1999 on, used police and militant groups like the War Veterans Association and Border Gezi Youth to enforce ZANU-PF policies and to prevent opponents from voting; called “king” by his aides. Arrested and tortured opponents and human rights activists; gave amnesty to murderers of his political opponents in 2000; ignores court rulings. Criticized as dictator by Desmond Tutu and Vladimir Putin.

Jerry Rawlings – Ghana – 1981–1992

Gained power in a military coup during 1979 but handed it over. Re-took power in another coup of 1981. Elected President in 1992 and again in 1996 before standing aside as per the constitution.

André Kolingba – Central African Republic – 1981–1993

Chairman of the Military Committee of National Recovery 1981-1985; President of the Central African Republic 1985-1993. Gained power in a coup; persecuted opposition; allowed (and lost) free elections in 1993. Attempted second coup in 2001.

Hosni Mubarak – Egypt – 1981–present

President of Egypt. Did not stand in a contested election until 2005, when a highly-restricted democratic process was allowed.

Paul Biya – Cameroon – 1982–present

He served under President Ahmadou Ahidjo and became Prime Minister in 1975. Ahidjo resigned on November 6, 1982 and Biya became president. After years of totalitarian rule, he allowed the creation of opposition parties in 1990 but his re-elections have been marked by widespread fraud and intimidation.

 

Pharaoh of Modern Egypt-Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak محمد حسني سيد مبارك‎,

Introduction

Born May 4, 1928 is the fourth and former President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

He was appointed Vice President in 1975, and assumed the Presidency on October 14, 1981, following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat. He is the longest-serving Egyptian ruler since Muhammad. Before he entered politics Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force, serving as its commander from 1972 to 1975. Beginning on January 25, 2011, a popular uprising called for his resignation as president of Egypt. On February 1, 2011, Mubarak announced that he will not seek another term in the upcoming presidential election.

On February 5, 2011 Egyptian state media reported that senior members of the ruling National Democratic Party, including President Hosni Mubarak, had resigned from leadership roles within the party. It was later clarified that Mubarak would stay on as president however.

Military Ref

In November 1967 Mubarak became the Air Force Academy’s commander and two years later he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force. As chief of staff of the Egyptian Air Force in 1971, he bluffed his Soviet air force advisers into a humiliating defeat. It was during the 1969-71 War of Attrition that followed Egypt‘s total defeat in the 1967 Six Day War. About 18,000 Soviet military advisers were in Egypt, courtesy of Gamal Abdel Nasser. His military career reached its pinnacle in 1972 when he became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defence and the following year he was promoted to air chief marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973. Estimates of the wealth of Mubarak and his family range from US$40 billion to $70 billion as per military contracts while Mubarak was an Air Force officer.

Assassination attempts

According to the BBC, Mubarak has survived six assassination attempts. In June 1995 there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while he was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity. He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said in September 1999.

Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003

President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 war on Iraq, arguing that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict should be resolved first. He also claimed that the war would cause “100 Bin Laden s’. However, President Mubarak does not support an immediate US pull out from Iraq as he believes it will lead to probable chaos.

Awards

Mubarak was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 1995. Mubarak was honored for his “unique role in providing stability and progress to his country, in upholding the Arab cause, in promoting peace and understanding in the region.

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