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Anwar Ibrahim – Victim of baseless allegations

A village of Cherok Tok Kun where hardly the political will connects gave rise to a star of new Malaysia on 10th August 1947 when the dawn of new era had began & when the shine of imperialism was started to fade then in a small unknown corner of the world someone was going to take birth whose ideology & growth will go to give Malaysia a new dimension to think beyond ethnic boundaries.

Anwar Ibrahim started his career when he was pursuing Malay studies as a President of Muslim student organization Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM) & of Persatuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya (PBMUM) simultaneously. In 1971 he was one of the prominent members & among the founders of Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia or Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) founded in 1971. During 1974 student protests against rural poverty & hunger he was booked under Malaysian Internal Security Act leading him to imprisonment of 20 months detaining him without any judicial trail.

Famous for his nationalist ideology his move to support the government of Malaysian President Mahathir Mohammad in 1981 shocked his liberal & unconditional supporters of his founded organization Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM). As he joined the politics the rise of his ranks & status gathered momentum. His first ministerial post was as the minister for Culture, Youth & Sports in 1983.

The time of Anwar’s golden era has now just started in 1983 & he remained & gained his ranks of political world with a great pace when ultimately he reached & was sworned in as a Deputy Prime Minister in Mahathir bin Mohammad government from 1993 – 1998 which ended with the blow of ASEAN financial crisis of 1997 closing of his son-father relationship of political path in 1998 with UMNO. He was also appointed as an Acting Prime Minister during absence of Mahathir Mohammad who took holiday from his work for about two months.

Before climbing to the Prime Minister’s desk Anwar Ibrahim headed many ministries in UMNO such as in 1984, Minister of Education 1986 which cleared the way for his prime ministerial position expected as per Malaysian politics which rife him to the surety of his Deputy Prime Ministerial choice.

Anwar came in limelight when he took charge of the two prominent ministries in 1986 Education Minister & 1991 Minister of Finance. During his tenure as a Minister of Education he introduced numerous pro Malay policies in the national school curriculum & the most controversial of them all was when he renamed the national language as Bahasa Melayu from Bahasa Malaysia this invited the huge public outcry from the non Malays who felt that this will detached the future generations from the national language & there will be nothing which does not belong to Malaysians but only to Malays.

This has created a much silent rift which has now widened with his moves. When he was Finance minister the allegations were drawn that he is being corrupt & is using public exchequer in a non transparent manner.

During the last years of his golden era when Malaysia & other ASEAN economies were facing brunt of financial crisis Anwar blamed Mahathir being a capitalist & was opened a clear front against his protectionist policies which have resulted in financial turmoil in Malaysia.

The trail & allegations which he faced & is going through are completely baseless as it is completely political which a result is of the confrontation between the two political magnets. With a rise in support & increasing popularity in the masses especially in the minorities Anwar’s demise can be beneficial to one person & that is Mahathir himself who even have called him the potential prime minister for Israel.

The person who is nationalist by choice & is clear with transparency in his views cannot be corrupt & can’t perform the act of sodomy with his fellow ministers. The trail under which he gone & spent 6 months under severe torture by the police authorities are completely not justified. The person who had been declared as Asian of the year just because of his policies & stand for his nation’s worst days is charged with the allegations of being corrupt political figure; the person who took stand against the corrupt political practices of the national leaders of his Malay nation especially that off Mahathir whose intentions to save his own investments leads the national exchequer to the mere dummy.

The reason which nobody knows is that Anwar stopped Mahathir to protect his family’s fortune & business interests by diversifying the public funds to their corporate. This has gone against the wishes of his senior colleague. It is said there is nothing bigger than the self politics which even does not spare the closest of the relations if they come in between of the personal satisfaction & greed of political growth.

This is what happened to the relations of Mahathir & Anwar which when tested on the values came under the political weight of scrutiny. The nationalistic values & patriotism of Anwar Ibrahim which thought was right & has guided him right on the path of truth & justice which his nation was expecting of him at the most difficult times of its economy didn’t matched with the greedy expectations of the corrupt political circles of the Mahathir bin Mohammad’s regime which even at the harsh times were just trying to save their own interests rather than those of nation.

The Anwar’s policies favouring financial & banking system which allows them to protect their funds in terms of saving them from bankruptcy & not allowing any offerings for public bailouts for the corporate had resulted in the first between the two titans of the Malaysian Cabinet.

It is the policies of Anwar & the values of his nationalism which saved Malaysia from the worst of the financial turmoil otherwise if there would be someone else corrupt then scenario of Anwar’s nation would have been completely different. This is he who have helped building Malaysia a more secular & friendly state rather being clutched in the grip of fundamentals of the radical Islam which has always threatened Malaysia’s system from the start of its first years of independence.

When somebody wants fame & want to get famous mostly the people choose to target who is already under sight & this is what happened to Anwar Ibrahim who was prosecuted under the false charges of sodomy by his fellow minister which though somehow proven on the false identification & criticised reports of the DNA has ended Anwar’s career altogether as Malaysian law has provisions of 15 years jail term under sodomy charges.

The trail which Anwar went through was full of loops in the judicial decision which made him the victim of the corrupt politicization of the judiciary in Malaysia. The decision to sentence Anwar & the maltreatment of him by the police officers in jail was the matter of the fact of political influence which still exist in advance Malaysian society which portrays itself as the most clear & a true Asian in real.

Defaming the image of the person whose ideology & focus is his nation, who have always stand for his nation in the most difficult times for which he even got awarded as the Asian of the Year. The person who sees life as respect & believes in being natural & clear in his approach was booked under the false allegations of the sodomy charges falsely put by the greedy sections of his fellows who Anwar has always trusted & coordinated on every level.

The person who visions a better & safer future for his nation was declared corrupt defaming his image which characterises him as the national hero who saved his nation from being driven in the down line of crisis. The person who talked about secularism & national unity was banned from the politics just because the loopy trails of false allegations were being conducted under the political channels favouring the hollow desires of greedy politicians.

The trail has not only tarnished the image of Malaysian judiciary but has also been criticised by most respected international organisations & communities. The open truth of Anwar Ibrahim’s patriotic soul has not been felt by the citizens of his nations to whom he served the most. The mockery of the Malaysian judiciary has now been made in the public resulting in the complete shame for the nation like this which is secular & friendly.

Even though he has promised to return to active politics & run the Malaysian parliament but the effect of his trails will take the toll on him as he is still going through the remaining allegations charged on him if the accusations are established then he will spent rest of his life in jail which though is not a good sign of the transparent judiciary who not even being so clear that the national hero & the masses leader who have always lead the nation as one has now struggling to hold his feet on his beloved ground of his mother’s lap where he was born, grown & sworned into the code of nationalism. Where he visions the future for his people as one & in peace where he has harmonised the genes of distinct identities that formed Malaysia as one.

The state of the perish falls on the political circle where even in this century there is no room for transparency & justice is still finding his hero & waiting for him to lead its way to peace & prosperity. The future of Anwar’s nation now stand in the cross roads of radical Islam & the secular society which Anwar’s has supported & viewed as harmonious for Malays.

In his absence the vacuum of the patriotic star will remain always in the empty corners of Malay Peninsula where now the discrimination of fundamentals is on the rise & where the demise of nationalism is the norm of the day. The heroes like Anwar Ibrahim are needed for Malaysia who is now struggling between the traditions & the challenges of the greedy capitalistic society who has never favoured the growth of the nation as one.

International World Tuberculosis Day, 24th March

24th March every year is the World Tuberculosis day designed to spread awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis and efforts to eliminate the disease. Today, this disease causes the deaths of about 1,6 million people each year, mostly in the third world.

The reason that it is on 24th March is because the day commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr. Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the cause of tuberculosis, the TB Bacillus. By the time of the announcement in Berlin, Europe and Americas was already being raged by the TB-virus causing the death of every one out of seven people.

In 1982, on the 100th anniversary of Robert Koch’s presentation, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) proposed that March 24th would be proclaimed as an official World TB Day.

Signs and symptoms

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When the disease becomes active in the human body, 75% of the cases are pulmonary TB, that is, TB in the lungs. The symptoms include; chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive, prolonged cough for more than three weeks. Systemic symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, pallor, and fatigue. Tuberculosis also has a specific odour attached to it; this has led to trained animals being used to vet samples as a method of early detection.

In the other 25% of active cases, the infection moves from the lungs, causing other kinds of TB, collectively denoted extra pulmonary tuberculosis. This occurs more commonly in immunosuppressed persons and young children. Extra pulmonary infection sites include the pleura in tuberculosis pleurisy, the central nervous system in meningitis, the lymphatic system in scrofula of the neck, the genitourinary system in urogenital tuberculosis, and bones and joints in Pott’s disease of the spine.

Causes

The cause of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a small aerobic non-motile bacillus. High lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its unique clinical characteristics. It divides every 16 to 20 hours, an extremely slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in less than an hour.

Epidemiology

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A third of the world’s population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second. However, not all infections with M. tuberculosis cause TB disease and many infections are asymptomatic. In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million people had active TB disease, with 9.3 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths; the annual incidence rate varied from 363 per 100,000 in Africa to 32 per 100,000 in the Americas. Tuberculosis is the world’s greatest infectious killer of women of reproductive age and the leading cause of death among people with HIV/AIDS.

In 2007, the country with the highest estimated incidence rate of TB was Swaziland, with 1200 cases per 100,000 people. India had the largest total incidence, with an estimated 2.0 million new cases. The Philippines ranks fourth in the world for the number of cases of tuberculosis and has the highest number of cases per head in Southeast Asia. Almost two thirds of Filipinos have tuberculosis, and up to an additional five million people are infected yearly. In developed countries, tuberculosis is less common and is mainly an urban disease. In the United Kingdom, the national average was 15 per 100,000 in 2007, and the highest incidence rates in Western Europe were 30 per 100,000 in Portugal and Spain. These rates compared with 98 per 100,000 in China and 48 per 100,000 in Brazil. In the United States, the overall tuberculosis case rate was 4 per 100,000 persons in 2007. In Canada tuberculosis is still endemic in some rural areas. The incidence of TB varies with age. In Africa, TB primarily affects adolescents and young adults, however, in countries where TB has gone from high to low incidence, such as the United States, it is mainly a disease of elder people, or of the immunocopromised.

What are the main causes of TB?

There are a number of known factors that make people more susceptible to TB infection such as HIV. Co-infection with HIV is a particular problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high incidence of HIV in these countries. Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day also increases the risk of TB by two to four times. Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries. Other disease states that increase the risk of developing tuberculosis are Hodgkin lymphoma, end-stage renal disease, chronic lung disease, malnutrition, and alcoholism.

Diet may also modulate risk. For example, among immigrants in London from the Indian subcontinent, vegetarian Hindu Asians were found to have an 8.5 fold increased risk of tuberculosis, compared to Muslims who ate meat and fish daily. Although a causal link is not proved by this data, this increased risk could be caused by micronutrient deficiencies: possibly iron, vitamin B12 or vitamin D. Further studies have provided more evidence of a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis. Globally, the severe malnutrition common in parts of the developing world causes a large increase in the risk of developing active tuberculosis, due to its damaging effects on the immune system. Along with overcrowding, poor nutrition may contribute to the strong link observed between tuberculosis and poverty.

Prisoners, especially in poor countries, are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB. Prisons provide conditions that allow TB to spread rapidly, due to overcrowding, poor nutrition and a lack of health services. Since the early 1990s, TB outbreaks have been reported in prisons in many countries in Eastern Europe. The prevalence of TB in prisons is much higher than among the general population, in some countries as much as 40 times higher.

Robert Koch

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a Prussian physician. He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the Tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the Vibrio cholerae (1883) and for his development of Koch’s postulates. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905 and considered one of the founders of microbiology,

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was born in Clausthal, Prussia one of the German states as the son of a mining official. He studied medicine under Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle at the University of Göttingen and graduated in 1866. He then served in the Franco-Prussian War and later became district medical officer, Wollstein (Wolsztyn), Prussian Poland. Working with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology, the other major figure being Louis Pasteur. After Casimir Davaine showed the direct transmission of the anthrax bacillus between cows, Koch studied anthrax more closely. He invented methods to purify the bacillus from blood samples and grow pure cultures. He found that, while it could not survive outside a host for long, anthrax built persisting endospores that could last a long time. These endospores, embedded in soil, were the cause of unexplained “spontaneous” outbreaks of anthrax. Koch published his findings in 1876, and was rewarded with a job at the Imperial Health Office in Berlin in 1880. In 1881, he urged the sterilization of surgical instruments using heat.

In Berlin, he improved the methods he used in Wollstein, including staining and purification techniques, and bacterial growth media, including agar plates (thanks to the advice of Angelina and Walther Hesse) and the Petri dish, named after its inventor, his assistant Julius Richard Petri and these devices are still used today. With these techniques, he was able to discover the bacterium causing tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in 1882 (he announced the discovery on 24 March). Tuberculosis was the cause of one in seven deaths in the mid-19th century.

In 1885, he became professor of hygiene at the University of Berlin, then in 1891 he was made Honorary Professor of the medical faculty and Director of the new Prussian Institute for Infectious Diseases (eventually renamed as the Robert Koch Institute), a position from which he resigned in 1904. He started traveling around the world, studying diseases in South Africa, India, and Java. He visited what is now called the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Mukteshwar on request of the then Government of India to investigate on cattle plague. The microscope used by him during that period was kept in the museum maintained by IVRI. Probably as important as his work on tuberculosis, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize (1905), are Koch’s postulates, which say that to establish that an organism is the cause of a disease, it must be:

  • found in all cases of the disease examined
  • prepared and maintained in a pure culture
  • capable of producing the original infection, even after several generations in culture
  • Retrievable from an inoculated animal and cultured again.

Koch’s pupils found the organisms responsible for diphtheria, typhoid, pneumonia, gonorrhoea, cerebrospinal meningitis, leprosy, bubonic plague, tetanus, and syphilis, among others, by using his methods.

Robert Koch died on 27 May 1910 from a heart-attack in Baden-Baden, aged 66.

Source info; Wikipedia

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