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Turkey. A role model for Egypt?

Turkey is regarded as a model for a regime that will strengthen the democracy, but the differences between the two countries are large. There are two large and important non Arab Muslim majority countries in the Middle East; Turkey and Iran. The possibility that the revolution in Egypt would provide the Muslim Brotherhood increased influence has led to fears in the neighboring countries that it would end up with an extremist Islamic regime just like in Iran.

The Origin

Turkey and Egypt was once a part of the Ottoman Empire, but ever after it collapsed at the time of First World War, the development of the two countries has turned different directions.

The Egyptian constitution states that “Islam is the State religion” and that “The most important basis for the legislation is Islamic Jurisprudence (Sharia).” The Turkish constitution on the other hand states that the country is a secular, non-religious republic, and the basis for the state’s population. The modern day’s Turkey’s founder; Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted to create a modern nation. One of the examples is that the traditional headscarf was prohibited in public places and the Arabic alphabet was replaced with the Latin alphabet. The military was tasked by the government in 1961 to protect the Turkish republic’s integrity and secularism as described in the constitution something the army takes very seriously.

Sole ruler

Both under Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar al-Sadat and Hosni Mubarak, Egypt as a modern state has been characterized by sole ruler to a limited extend and haven’t allowed political oppositions. Nasser was a charismatic leader and Mubarak was a leader with not much support but with a determination to rule as long as possible. Despite all the differences, we can speak about Turkey as a model because of its bright developments over the past 10 years.

The road to democratization

After being a candidate in the EU in 1999, the requirement to fulfil the Copenhagen criteria for membership weakened the military’s role in Turkey. The National Security Council, where national security policy issues are discussed, have also been reformed and now consists of more civilian members than before when there was an emphasis on military officers. An attempted military intervention was still made as in 2007 it was revealed that there existed a right-wing military network that was planning a coup.

Since March 2003, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Justice and Development Party (AKP) have been in power. It is a moderate Islamist party, such as; that wishes to go in for a Turkish EU membership. This kind of moderate form of Islamic rule won’t happen over night in Egypt and if it would happen, then it does need a better functioning multi party system.

Statistic numbers

A survey conducted by the polling institute Pew Research Center before the protest wave began, shows clear differences between Egypt and Turkey. 72% of Turks see democracy as the absolute best form of government. 50% Egyptians do the same. 85% of Egyptians believe it is positive that Islam has an influence in politics and the number in Turkey is only 38%. When it comes to Islamic extremism, 61% of the Egyptians are strongly or partly concerned about it, while in Turkey 40% of Turks feel the same. While 52% of Turks see a conflict between the forces that will modernize the society and the fundamentalists, only 31% of Egyptians think the same. These numbers show that the Egyptians do want religion to play a role, but it gets disturbed by the extremists. In Turkey, the democratic way of thinking is quite strong, and soon 90 years of separation between state and Islam seems to have entrenched themselves. Turkey is an important model not only for Egypt but for the whole Middle East as it appears as a mediator whenever the storm hits its neighbours.

This was proven when President Abdullah Gül was awarded with the 2010 Chatham House Prize in London. Abdullah Gül has been a smooth operator and described as “the first proudly observant Muslim to be head of the secular Turkish state that wants to put an end to mutterings in Western capitals about Turkey’s shift to the East.” He was contributed this prize “for his contribution both to international relations and Turkeys development as a vibrant democratic state.”
While Gül will be remembered for his positive achievements, the Arab leaders will be remembered for their dictatorship, corruption and lack of respect for democracy.

Facts:

  • Turkey;

  • Governance: Republic.
  • Population: 77, 8 million.
  • Capital: Ankara.
  • Important export: Electronics, textile, agriculture products.
  • Economical growth: 4,7 %.
  • Living: Number 83 on UN’s list over 182 countries.
  • Corruption: Number 56 on Transparency s list over 180 countries, where 1 is least corrupt.
  • Surface area: 783.562 sqkms.
  • Egypt

  • Governance: Republic.
  • Population: 80 million.
  • Capital: Cairo.
  • Important export: Oil, cotton, metal products.
  • Economical growth: 4, 6 %.
  • Living: Number 101 on UN’s list over 182 countries.
  • Corruption: Number 98 on Transparency s list over 180 countries, where 1 is least corrupt.
  • Surface: 1 million sqkms.

Arab Leaders Take Strong Measures – Middle East Crisis

King of Bahrain handing out 2728$ per family after Mubarak was pressured to resign.

Many of Egypt and Tunisia’s neighbors have tried to adopt cautious reforms to stop similar protest movements in their own countries. On Thursday, the King of Jordan, King Abdullah, formed a new government with both an Islamist and five left-wing politicians among the 26 ministers after recent weeks where protesters in Amman demanded political and economic changes. Prime Minister Mohammed Abu Hammur has a difficult job as he needs to calm down the protesters who demand cheaper food and energy. At the same time he must reassure the World Bank and the United States, who fear that the economy is out of hand again with subsidies.

The little Gulf state Bahrain has a history with strong conflicts among Sunni and Shia Muslims and already last summer huge violent riots occurred. While Shiites form the majority, the Sunnis have the control. Although Bahrain has a parliamentary system, many Shiites feel that they have a harder time getting access to public benefits and jobs than sunnimuslims have. Monday is the 10th anniversary for the country’s constitution, and it has been notified of demonstrations. Precisely for close ties to the United States was one of the objections against the Mubarak regime in Egypt, and the same thing is been said about Bahrain. So as a solution, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, announced on Friday that all families will receive 2728$ to stop the planned protests.

U.S. allies in the Middle East have put hard pressure on Washington to keep a protective hand over Hosni Mubarak. Along with Jordan, countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE and Israel warned of the spread of contagion if Mubarak is expelled. Saudi Arabia is America’s other strong allies in the Arab countries.

In Kuwait, all demonstrations have been banned after yesterday’s Friday prayers in mosques.

This week it was suddenly possible to get in on Facebook and YouTube in Syria who follows after the neighbouring countries as these popular sites have been closed for three years.

Iranian television announced that Mubarak’s departure is a major victory for the Egyptian people but the opposition leader Mehdi Karroubi was placed under house arrest after he called for demonstrations on Monday. The aim of the demonstrations was to show support for the rebellion in Egypt and Tunisia.

In Yemen proclaimed President Ali Abdullah Saleh is already in early February that he will not seek re-election and that he did not want his son to take over power in the country. He has tried to calm the protests by promising half of the level of taxation and impose price controls on food.

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