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The Red Wrath on Ask David

The Red Wrath The Red Wrath The Red Wrath

My words and my answer to those who hate me

I am a brave person with a power of confidence and knowledge who have always accepted risk in his life and I have enjoyed standing against extremism. Do what you want to do, do whatever you can do. I am a lion whose nature is to die like a soldier and live like a leader.

The fruit seller who threw down the dictators

Mohammed Bouazizi or Basboosaas his friends called him was a poor fruit seller who had been working since he was 10 year old. he was only 3 years old when his father passed away and the little he earned was used to keep his mother, uncle and 6 siblings alive. He was used to being harassed by the local police for quite sometime but he would continue working with his handcart where he stashed vegetables and fruits. But this would come to an end December 17, 2010.

The female policeofficer, Faida Hamdi confiscated his handcart the day after he had borrowed money to buy more vegetables. Besides taking away his only income, the police officers had cussed him out in public, beaten him and called his late father bad names.

The shame, frsutration, desperation and humiliation had become too much for the 26 year old boy. He doused himself in petrol and set fire. And with him a whole region burnt down.

His suicide sparked the frustration the Tunisian people had felt for a long time and using Facebook and Al Jazeera, they spread the story about the young fruit seller. The Tunisian President Zine al-Abidine fled the country January 14th after ruling for 23 years.  Nobody had anticipated that his suicide would break down the dictators in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, and bring unrest to Syira, Jemen and Bahrain.

Mohammed, a simple young boy, work very hard to send his sisters to school and university earning only $5 a day. He was often forced to bribe the authorities more than he could earn to set up his handcart because they wouldn’t give him a permit.

Now, a picture of Bouazizi’s face has been set up to the mosaic tiled monument outside the municipal office where he earned his slap from a female worker when he went to complain about not being able to work as his income had been confiscated.

His friends and family remember him as a young man of simple taste, who had no time to follow football or music, and in time wanted to get married. His ambition was to buy the pickup truck for which he was saving, so he could drive to the market to buy his fruit, instead of having to walk.

His mother remembers how happy he was that morning and that he had never been suicidal, only frustrated over the town officials who would treat him unfair. “He would just sleep a few hours and go early to the market to push his handcart. When he had free time, he would stay with his family at home”, she said.

Outside Sidi Bouzid, where Mohammed used to live and work, about 12 miles along the main highway, there is a dirt road signposted for Sidi Salah. The cemetery is a little way beyond the village among some few trees and a line of ochre hills. Bouazizi’s grave is a grey concrete block with two pretty yellow bowls set in it, filled with water.

 

End of Dictatorship – Crossroad of extremism

Flipping to the pages of history, I found the un-predictable nature of political transformations which gave way to new forms of governance while ridding away from the age old tribal and monarchy rules but something is about to change the scenario, a scenario where even being an un-official figure one will rule the nation and take the world on ride; in a hot summer months when the life in Sahara becomes the worst in terms of survival one June a child was born in 1942 in burning sands of vast spread rural heartlands of Qasr Abu Hadi near the town of Sirte in a Bedouin tent.

The world earlier was divided on the grounds of territory but with the introduction of the authoritarian dictatorships which have ruled the corners of globe on the base of its distinct and conflicting ideologies. These concepts of think-tank governing divided the world into the pieces of play cards where the forces were got involved in the tussle to decide which donkey will rule the world and lead his people.

The world wars which were fought telling the stories of capitalism and fascism or communism were actually fought to establish once own concept of ideologies which haunted the world for over a century making the world a hotbed of extremism which unveil its first form, a form, a purity of rule of thumb, a definition of authority named as dictator and his political form a ship which when combines becomes a dictatorship it has numerous sub forms varying on the points of perceptions ranging from Fascism, Nazism, Leninism, Stalinism, Maoism, Military or Junta, absolute monarchy (traditional form), Religious governments, communism, warlords’ and tribal leaderships (traditional form).

Even though many part with this totalitarianism whereas majority wants the democratic freedom to be theirs, after the end of World War II many countries witnessed the drastic revolutions which not only changed their lives but also put the entire regulatory system to suppress the freedom of every ones lives.

A land of deserts and dying souls which never have ever thought that it would become the sunshine of ideology to the world where the rule of some of the authoritarian will took its shape, a shape which no-one would or could ever imagined about. It was hidden silence of Suez crisis which gave rise to a person who not only transforms the nature of entire governance but also the perceptions about rule of the masses and the name of that person was ‘Late Col Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi’ or simply ‘Gaddafi’ which the world has known to call him always.

This was the person who abolished the Libyan monarchy in a bloodless coup and formed a new constitution in 1969 bringing the divided tribal Libyan heartland under the fold and dominion of one flag and one nation governance. This was the time when people of different races and cultures see him as a liberator, as hero, as their true committed brotherly leader but destiny was busy in writing something unexpected which one day will shake the world and its tyrant leaders ruling in the close Libyan neighborhoods.

Gaddafi during his rule was known for his flamboyant dresses and lifestyle which were backed and guarded by his brigade of female bodyguards who have always been the uncompromised security delegation travelling lavishly protecting their leaders back from hawking eyes.

Even though he taken the country on ride of development and prosperity for all under the new unique system of Jamahiriya or ruled by the masses as he popularly famed it was just a false carpet which covers the hidden truth behind the madness and inhumanity of this brotherly leader who was not so brotherly to his own people, having ruled for forty two years Gaddafi personally ordered and executed many smiling and rebellion souls whom he thought to be a threat to his political survival or could challenge his authority. But who had predicted the outcome which his destiny had planned for him for his deeds which stole the lives of hundreds and thousands of innocents died mercilessly for their wish to live in freedom and liberty of being democratic.

One of the initial examples of mercilessness is the killing of students and participating teachers in protests organized in ‘Benghazi’s Engineering College in the warm April of 1977’ whose participant bodies were hanged on the street lights after being executed for the exhibition so that people should learn about his power and the result if they try to raise their heads against him.

However it is true always to say that the ball never lies in one court, it sometimes fall in one while sometime it rolls in others and the moment came on when his colleagues and friendly allies faced the wrath of spring uprisings which shook the whole world by surprise igniting its flame from Tunisia while making the Egyptian dictator abandon his crown forcing him to flee whereas ultimately hitting hard at Gaddafi’s tented doors on 15 February 2011 making it the worst in the series of ‘Arab Spring’.

A small unarmed rebellion which rose by surprise in the silent corners of Benghazi was the beginning of the end of Gaddafi era which in no time spread like a wild fire across the country and drag the whole world’s attention towards its cause and cries overshadowing the other’s revolting against in the near quarters while buying the time for the self styled dictators like “Bashar al Assad of Syria, Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, Sultan Quboos of Oman, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa of Bahrain” and “many regimes like of Jordan, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Palestinian clashes near Israeli border, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan, Morocco and even a slight silent hidden protests in UAE and Saudi Arabia” where the eyes of all international media was wide shut and divert their cameras towards the killing spree and cut throat war between the pro Gaddafi forces and the newly recognized NTC rebel forces backed by the mean stealth power of NATO strike forces.

The heavy handed dealing by their leader results in the outburst of rage which created the shock and awe situation in the entire global community. These were the moments when the rule of fist episodes was being written in the unfinished chapters of the ‘Green Book’. The shine of his legacy was started to fade away from the sands of his nativity for which he was honored as ‘King of Kings’.

But the brutality of the actual reality revealed the true colors of the Gaddafi supporters and of him as well which took the lives of more than 200,000 souls who brave hearted the struggle against him and his suppression. Many are said to be still missing and many have become the part of this deadly victory. Which clean sweep the well trained force and their leader finally on October 20th 2011 when the so called ‘king of kings’ was struck by the air raid on his convoy running for his life like a mad dog and finally hidden like a rat in a drainage pipes in the deserted city of his hometown Sirte the last arena of his power base falling in the hands of those whom he called once with the same names and now was lying and acting in the same manner.

Lesson for the World Dictators and the violation of human rights by rebels:

What shocked the world and even the entire partly recognized ‘National Transitional Council’ that the treatment which Gaddafi received at the hands of rebels was truly not deserving and unpredictable. Though it was understood that the storm of rage was building up in the minds’ and hearts’ of a common public which rose against and ended the dictator and his regime but the treatment which they gave in the final moments of Col Gaddafi was totally inhuman and unforgiving. The culprits cannot be forgiven and their reasons cannot be justified on any grounds and at all costs for their cruelty and the violations of the human rights protected under ‘Geneva Convention’.

Even though he has done countless atrocities and curbed the raising voices through the iron fist but he too is a human being and no matter how he has been but no religion, no book of law, no culture says that you treat the human or even a devil like this. He must had given a chance to defend himself under the fair trail procedures whereas when he was killed by the rebels his body must be buried and given proper burial rites but instead of doing this they not only killed him while taking him into custody and reporting to the concerned authority but they took his body to Misurata where they kept it in a unhygienic meat freezer for four days making the whole body into a smelling carcass, taking pictures and allowing public to rid of its fear by putting it on national exhibition nevertheless doing the same with his son Mutassim Al Islam as well.

But all an all it is also the lesson to those ones like ‘Syria’s Bashar al Assad’ to stop killing and suppressing his own people and take a step forward towards democracy and freedom to the public not to the government. These leaders should now learn that this is what happens if your collar will fall in hands of the common man whom you have crushed, tortured, suppress with your iron fist and even killed them mercilessly without caring about their cries and pain they were living into and are going through.

The passion and the real pleasure is not in the power of your luxury which these dictators want but serving your people with honesty, providing them with opportunities, raising their level of liberty and freedom of fundamental rights without any un-necessary regulations on them.

Now what for Libya when Gaddafi has gone forever?   

Now since the 42 years old authority gone the question arises what will now happen to the Libyan dream the rebels who fought and those who guided as the support in the war against the pro Gaddafi forces and their dictator, must take the responsibility to form the political system under a democratic format and encourage the youth and those who didn’t served under Gaddafi regime on any of the political positions or in any government departments. The council must represent the sections of all the tribes and communities which form the Libyan nation at large. However before deciding what to do? the international community should help and support the NTC and its leaders to establish the normalcy and national stability in Libya.

Though NATO’s role has ended after Gaddafi’s death but it should take the new responsibility to un-armed the rebels and the general population whom he supplied with the weapons taking into considerations of the National Transitional Council. Otherwise if this not be done and left un-addressed Libya will become the another example similar to Afghanistan where the CIA had armed the Mujahedeen to fight against Soviet Occupancy which started its supplies to armed the public there in 1979 and now the situation is known to everyone that CIA left the Afghan people heavily armed which has transformed not only their country into a banana republic ruled by warlords and mafias without any strong constitutional governance but also the neighboring Pakistan too.

As during the withdrawal of Russian troops from there the local public and the political leaders turned the once peaceful united country into war zone making it the one of the worst civil wars in the human history from the period of 1990 till 1996 under the President ship of Burhanuddin Rabbani and then carried forward by the extremist Taliban who ruled Afghanistan as de-facto rulers turning world into a living hell from then on and now it is a fresh mistake done by the same old culprit who is used to do mistakes all the time earlier it was CIA and now NATO. So, this time West and the US should not left this menace unaddressed otherwise Libyans will turn the globe into rotting flesh where only smells of dead will come and nothing will survive in peace.

Taking the toll not only on their local people but also posing a constant threat to the global peace giving rise to a whole new form of extremism or in other words the orthodox fundamentalist society and system, the US and its allies must learn from their mistake and if they are serious they should not repeat the same in Libya.

UNO must intervene and should pass a resolution which would give responsibility to all the five permanent members specifically France, the UK and the US who not only illegally armed the general public and transformed them into a mean fighting rebels but also equally responsible for the human rights violations committed by them during the war which took numerous civilian lives and unaccounted number of infrastructural damages caused by the ill planned and haphazard way of strike launching and target hitting.

NATO and NTC rebels who killed Gaddafi, who gone on rampage and on looting drive along with the Gaddafi’s surviving family members must be brought to trial under the International Court of Justice and should be made responsible and penalized for their acts and violations carried out in the Libyan civil war.

Even though NATO has declared end to its mission but the actual mission starts now after the end of dictatorship when Libyans face the world nothing in their hands, where there is no formal government, no coordination among the various tribal communities but only a vacuum which they need to fill it up quickly.

End of dictatorship pose the new series of challenges which the newly liberated people of Libya will face and are now has started to face already. The world must come together and unite in an effort to support and help Libyan people in the road to developing their nation as vibrant united democratic nation with due respect and freedom to their fundamental rights.

Otherwise the day is not far that when within a few days of time the new breed of extremists / fundamentalist will rise and grow posing the very danger to the international stability and watering the efforts and sacrifices made by those who dreamt and fought with their lives in hands to get the shine of liberated nation and to establish a true democracy.

Nuclear Love Story – Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun by Fahad Hussain

Though the 20th century‘s history was carved by Hitler & world remembers him as a Holocaust father with just looking at the darkest side of him but in the era of the bloodshed even before the first nuclear experiment started there was a hidden romance flourishing in the heart of the greatest all time villain Adolf Hitler breaking the veins from the clutches of Swastika. Though there were rumors about Fuhrer of having love relations with the two pretty ladies of the radiation era Geli Raubal & Erna Hanfstaengl but the truth is different from illusions beyond imaginations. The lady who ruled the darkest heart & the cruelest mind of history was Eva Braun. Born in Munich Germany on 6th February 1912 was a model that was in a relationship with the most powerful man of his time when she was just 17. The German public was not aware of their love relationship.

 

Ups & Downs: Every romance has to be tested & goes through hard times so like their one too went through. As their hearts draws closer to each other & seeks love into the each other souls the bunkers of the third Reich filled with fragrance of love when they first met at Hoffmann’s studio of Munich in October 1929. But there were moments when after Geli Raubal’s death on 18th September 1931 Hitler was just seeking loneliness which shocked him the most; changing the perceptions of Fuhrer completely igniting the new era of dark clouds with the stains of blood. It was during this time when Eva Braun started feeling lonely & attempted suicides two times.  Throughout 1930s & early 1940s Fuhrer’s household was looked after by Eva Braun situated at the Bergdorf near Berchtesgaden where they partied & enjoy evening together sometimes taking a short walks together with their beloved dogs Negus and Stasi. As the clouds of holocaust engulfed around Europe their souls become lonely. Living in the luxurious complex of her love while her heart was living in the highly fortified bunker of the Reich Chancellery Braun spoke to Speer a supporter & a close ally of Hitler memoirs while reading romance novel: that Hitler is now too busy & never try to intimate her.

The couples spent moments of their secret relationship with love & smoking cigars having fruits in the Fuhrer study where they talk about the politics of Reich & their emotions. Hitler always used to cracked jokes & tease his second half by quoting on her lipsticks, hairs & appearance. But one thing which separates them is their distinct diet as Adolf was a pure vegetarian & doesn’t like cosmetics & products made from animal by products & their body parts whereas Eva loves the reverse.

After learning about the failed assassination attempt on Hitler, Eva wrote to him: “From our first meeting I swore to follow you anywhere even unto death. I live only for your love.”

A marriage of 46 hours: A fter the failed 20 July of 1944 to kill Fuhrer, Eva joined her love at the bunker of the Reich Chancellery of the Third Reich by driving herself from Munich to Berlin in a car in early April of 1945. On 29th April 1945 Hitler made Braun his wife when the enemy was knocking at the gates when she refused to leave him insisting that she was one of the few people left loyal to him. And as they got married with their neighborhood burning they hosted a wedding breakfast for their staff & the members of the inner circle after their brief civil wedding ceremony carried out in the bunker which lasted just for 46 hours. At the final hour of their relationship Hitler & his beloved wife Eva Hitler who he lovingly used to called Frau Hitler or Fraulein Braun gave their final farewell to their staff & the members of the inner circle at 1:00pm on the afternoon of the 30th April 1945 when the members heard the gunshot after few minutes when they opened the door the bodies of the groom & bride were lying lifeless where in the room the greatest romance of the 20th century was took his last breath by ending their lives differently Hitler shot himself at his right temple by his pistol PPK7.66 & his beloved Eva sacrificing her soul by biting a cyanide capsule. With the suicide of these holocaust souls their romance had now came to an end. Braun was 33 & Hitler 56 when they commit suicide after which their souls became one though not in the real world they survived for long but as the true lovers they are now have made themselves one by dyeing together leaving the world to change & curse them since the history of romance itself is great but the end of every great love story had been the same throughout the history & that is dyeing together making the world their enemy.

Though everyone curse Hitler for his doing & the political corners curse Braun as a biggest disappointment of the history but we must not forget that the emotions also exists in the beast where in some deepest corner of their heart love lives which even in the world’s harshest days encouraged them to love each other.

If a person wants to bring a revolution then he needs to become a revolutionary first.

By Adolf Hitler.

emotions are for many but the reasons are for few. Adolf Hitler

Important Events on March 28

March 28: Teachers’ Day in the Czech Republic; Serfs Emancipation Day in Tibet

Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

  • 193 – Praetorian Guards assassinated Roman Emperor Pertinax and sold the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.
  • 1802 – German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers discovered 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man.
  • 1942 – World War II: In occupied France, British naval forces successfully disabled the key port of Saint-Nazaire.
  • 1979 – A partial core meltdown of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (pictured) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S., resulted in the release of an estimated 43,000 curies (1.59 PBq) of radioactive krypton to the environment.
  • 2003 – Invasion of Iraq: In a friendly fire incident, two members of the United States Air Force attacked the United Kingdom’s Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry, killing one and injuring five British soldiers.

Important Events on March 27

March 27: Tatmadaw Day in Burma

1782 – Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, a leading British Whig Party statesman, began his second non-consecutive term as Prime Minister of Great Britain.
1884 – Outraged by a jury’s decision to convict a man of manslaughter instead of murder, a mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, US, began three days of rioting.
1958 – Nikita Khrushchev (pictured) became Premier of the Soviet Union following the death of Joseph Stalin.
1975 – Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, an oil pipeline spanning the length of the U.S. state of Alaska, began.
1981 – The Solidarity movement in Poland staged a warning strike, the biggest strike in the history of the Eastern Bloc, in which at least 12 million Poles walked off their jobs for four hours.
2009 – The dam holding Situ Gintung, an artificial lake in Tangerang District, Indonesia, failed, releasing floods that killed at least 100 people.

Important Events on March 26

March 26: Independence Day in Bangladesh (1971); Earth Hour (20:30 local time in various areas, 2011)

Dr Jonas Salk prepares an injection of his polio vaccine

  • 1830 – The Book of Mormon, the defining sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, was first published.
  • 1953 – Jonas Salk (pictured) announced the successful test of his polio vaccine on a small group of adults and children.
  • 1974 – A group of peasant women in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India, used their bodies to surround trees in order to prevent loggers from felling them, giving rise to the Chipko movement.
  • 1979 – By signing the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Egypt became the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel.
  • 2010 – An explosion allegedly caused by a North Korean torpedo sank the South Korean warship ROKS Cheonan, killing 46 sailors.

Elizabeth Taylor – an Era by gone

The actress Elizabeth Taylor was buried yesterday, the day after she died of heart failure.

Around 40 of the actor’s family members and friends were present during the funeral, according to The Guardian. The ceremony began 15 minutes late. This was to fulfill the actor’s last wish as she wanted to be late for her own funeral said Sally Morrison, Taylor’s spokeswomen.
Actor Colin Farell read poetry and grandchildren Taylor performed “Amazing Graze” on trumpet at the private ceremony.

Taylor, who was married 8 times, converted to Judaism before she married Eddie Fisher in 1959 and Jewish custom requires that the funeral will take place within 48 hours after death. The actress is now buried in a mausoleum in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Los Angeles, the same place as her good friend Michael Jackson is buried.
According to Fox News is also the graveyard the final resting place for stars like Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, WC Firelds, Walt Disney and Nat King Cole.

Important Events on March 25

March 25: Feast of the Annunciation in Christianity; Independence Day in Greece (1821)

Church of San Giacomo di Rialto, Venice

  • 421 – According to legend, the city of Venice (in modern Italy) was founded exactly at the stroke of noon with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo (pictured) at the islet of Rialto.
  • 1821 – Metropolitan Germanos of Patras raised the Greek flag in the Monastery of Agia Lavra to symbolically mark the beginning of the Greek War of Independence.
  • 1911 – The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City killed more than 140 garment workers, many of whom could not escape the burning building because the managers had locked the doors to the stairwells and exits.
  • 1949 – The Soviet Union began mass deportations of over 90,000 people from the Baltic states to Siberia.
  • 1975 – King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot and killed by his nephew Faisal bin Musa’id.

International World Tuberculosis Day, 24th March

24th March every year is the World Tuberculosis day designed to spread awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis and efforts to eliminate the disease. Today, this disease causes the deaths of about 1,6 million people each year, mostly in the third world.

The reason that it is on 24th March is because the day commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr. Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the cause of tuberculosis, the TB Bacillus. By the time of the announcement in Berlin, Europe and Americas was already being raged by the TB-virus causing the death of every one out of seven people.

In 1982, on the 100th anniversary of Robert Koch’s presentation, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) proposed that March 24th would be proclaimed as an official World TB Day.

Signs and symptoms

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When the disease becomes active in the human body, 75% of the cases are pulmonary TB, that is, TB in the lungs. The symptoms include; chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive, prolonged cough for more than three weeks. Systemic symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, pallor, and fatigue. Tuberculosis also has a specific odour attached to it; this has led to trained animals being used to vet samples as a method of early detection.

In the other 25% of active cases, the infection moves from the lungs, causing other kinds of TB, collectively denoted extra pulmonary tuberculosis. This occurs more commonly in immunosuppressed persons and young children. Extra pulmonary infection sites include the pleura in tuberculosis pleurisy, the central nervous system in meningitis, the lymphatic system in scrofula of the neck, the genitourinary system in urogenital tuberculosis, and bones and joints in Pott’s disease of the spine.

Causes

The cause of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a small aerobic non-motile bacillus. High lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its unique clinical characteristics. It divides every 16 to 20 hours, an extremely slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in less than an hour.

Epidemiology

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A third of the world’s population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second. However, not all infections with M. tuberculosis cause TB disease and many infections are asymptomatic. In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million people had active TB disease, with 9.3 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths; the annual incidence rate varied from 363 per 100,000 in Africa to 32 per 100,000 in the Americas. Tuberculosis is the world’s greatest infectious killer of women of reproductive age and the leading cause of death among people with HIV/AIDS.

In 2007, the country with the highest estimated incidence rate of TB was Swaziland, with 1200 cases per 100,000 people. India had the largest total incidence, with an estimated 2.0 million new cases. The Philippines ranks fourth in the world for the number of cases of tuberculosis and has the highest number of cases per head in Southeast Asia. Almost two thirds of Filipinos have tuberculosis, and up to an additional five million people are infected yearly. In developed countries, tuberculosis is less common and is mainly an urban disease. In the United Kingdom, the national average was 15 per 100,000 in 2007, and the highest incidence rates in Western Europe were 30 per 100,000 in Portugal and Spain. These rates compared with 98 per 100,000 in China and 48 per 100,000 in Brazil. In the United States, the overall tuberculosis case rate was 4 per 100,000 persons in 2007. In Canada tuberculosis is still endemic in some rural areas. The incidence of TB varies with age. In Africa, TB primarily affects adolescents and young adults, however, in countries where TB has gone from high to low incidence, such as the United States, it is mainly a disease of elder people, or of the immunocopromised.

What are the main causes of TB?

There are a number of known factors that make people more susceptible to TB infection such as HIV. Co-infection with HIV is a particular problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high incidence of HIV in these countries. Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day also increases the risk of TB by two to four times. Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries. Other disease states that increase the risk of developing tuberculosis are Hodgkin lymphoma, end-stage renal disease, chronic lung disease, malnutrition, and alcoholism.

Diet may also modulate risk. For example, among immigrants in London from the Indian subcontinent, vegetarian Hindu Asians were found to have an 8.5 fold increased risk of tuberculosis, compared to Muslims who ate meat and fish daily. Although a causal link is not proved by this data, this increased risk could be caused by micronutrient deficiencies: possibly iron, vitamin B12 or vitamin D. Further studies have provided more evidence of a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis. Globally, the severe malnutrition common in parts of the developing world causes a large increase in the risk of developing active tuberculosis, due to its damaging effects on the immune system. Along with overcrowding, poor nutrition may contribute to the strong link observed between tuberculosis and poverty.

Prisoners, especially in poor countries, are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB. Prisons provide conditions that allow TB to spread rapidly, due to overcrowding, poor nutrition and a lack of health services. Since the early 1990s, TB outbreaks have been reported in prisons in many countries in Eastern Europe. The prevalence of TB in prisons is much higher than among the general population, in some countries as much as 40 times higher.

Robert Koch

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a Prussian physician. He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the Tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the Vibrio cholerae (1883) and for his development of Koch’s postulates. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905 and considered one of the founders of microbiology,

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was born in Clausthal, Prussia one of the German states as the son of a mining official. He studied medicine under Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle at the University of Göttingen and graduated in 1866. He then served in the Franco-Prussian War and later became district medical officer, Wollstein (Wolsztyn), Prussian Poland. Working with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology, the other major figure being Louis Pasteur. After Casimir Davaine showed the direct transmission of the anthrax bacillus between cows, Koch studied anthrax more closely. He invented methods to purify the bacillus from blood samples and grow pure cultures. He found that, while it could not survive outside a host for long, anthrax built persisting endospores that could last a long time. These endospores, embedded in soil, were the cause of unexplained “spontaneous” outbreaks of anthrax. Koch published his findings in 1876, and was rewarded with a job at the Imperial Health Office in Berlin in 1880. In 1881, he urged the sterilization of surgical instruments using heat.

In Berlin, he improved the methods he used in Wollstein, including staining and purification techniques, and bacterial growth media, including agar plates (thanks to the advice of Angelina and Walther Hesse) and the Petri dish, named after its inventor, his assistant Julius Richard Petri and these devices are still used today. With these techniques, he was able to discover the bacterium causing tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in 1882 (he announced the discovery on 24 March). Tuberculosis was the cause of one in seven deaths in the mid-19th century.

In 1885, he became professor of hygiene at the University of Berlin, then in 1891 he was made Honorary Professor of the medical faculty and Director of the new Prussian Institute for Infectious Diseases (eventually renamed as the Robert Koch Institute), a position from which he resigned in 1904. He started traveling around the world, studying diseases in South Africa, India, and Java. He visited what is now called the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Mukteshwar on request of the then Government of India to investigate on cattle plague. The microscope used by him during that period was kept in the museum maintained by IVRI. Probably as important as his work on tuberculosis, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize (1905), are Koch’s postulates, which say that to establish that an organism is the cause of a disease, it must be:

  • found in all cases of the disease examined
  • prepared and maintained in a pure culture
  • capable of producing the original infection, even after several generations in culture
  • Retrievable from an inoculated animal and cultured again.

Koch’s pupils found the organisms responsible for diphtheria, typhoid, pneumonia, gonorrhoea, cerebrospinal meningitis, leprosy, bubonic plague, tetanus, and syphilis, among others, by using his methods.

Robert Koch died on 27 May 1910 from a heart-attack in Baden-Baden, aged 66.

Source info; Wikipedia

Important Events on March 24

March 24: Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice in Argentina

Scanning electron micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells

  • 1603 – After Queen Elizabeth I died at Richmond Palace, King James VI of Scotland acceded to the throne of England, Wales and Ireland, becoming James I of England and unifying the crowns of the four kingdoms for the first time.
  • 1869 – The last of Māori leader Titokowaru’s forces surrendered to the New Zealand government, ending his uprising.
  • 1882 – German physician Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pictured), a bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
  • 1980 – One day after giving a sermon in which he made a plea to Salvadoran soldiers to stop carrying out the government’s repression and violations of basic human rights, Archbishop Óscar Romero was assassinated while celebrating Mass in San Salvador.
  • 2008 – The Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party, led by Jigme Thinley, won 45 out of 47 seats in the National Assembly of Bhutan in the country’s first-ever general election.

Important Events on March 23

March 23: Republic Day in Pakistan (1956); Day of Hungarian–Polish Friendship in Hungary and Poland

Eleftherios Venizelos

  • 1879 – Fighting in the War of the Pacific between Chile and a Peruvian–Bolivian alliance, opened with the Battle of Topáter.
  • 1905 – 1,500 Cretans, led by Eleftherios Venizelos (pictured), met at the village of Theriso to call for the island’s unification with Greece, beginning the Theriso revolt.
  • 1931 – Bhagat Singh, one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, and two others were executed by British authorities.
  • 1991 – The Sierra Leone Civil War began when the Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invaded Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh.
  • 2001 – The Russian Federal Space Agency forced the space station Mir to deorbit and crash into the Pacific Ocean.

سقوط یک دین بزرگ — زرتشتی

منبع :

بنا نهاده شده قبل از 6 قرن پیش از میلاد توسط زرتشت پیامبر بود که در عصر مفرغ از بینایی خود را از اولین Vohu Manah در سن 30 سالگی به دنیا آمد در حالی که گرفتن یک شیب در Daiti رودخانه توسط قادر متعال که Parsis نامیده می شود در زبان خود را به عنوان اهورا مزدا در ایران یا مدرن روز ایران. هیچ اندیشه تناسخ در جسم تازه و برای آنها در آخر زمان باور کن که وقتی جهان دوباره زنده خواهد شد به طور کامل وجود دارد. کتاب مقدس اوستا نامیده می شود در اصل در زبان باستانی ایران نوشته شده است به غیر از روز های مدرن فارسی است. از آن استفاده می شود مذهب در جهان در بزرگترین ساسانی 228BCE قانون زمانی که آن را در اوج خود است که در آن امپراتوری فرم زرتشت به مناطق آسیای میانه ، جنوب آسیا ، شرق میانه و حمایت کرده بود شده بود حتی در افق اندیشه خود را به افزایش اروپا و چین که در آن حتی به این ویرانه روز از معبد خود را در Zinjiang منطقه از چین پیدا شد. با حمله اسکندر مقدونی سوم بزرگ در 330BCE سقوط از عصر زرتشت طلایی آغاز شده که اسکندر حمله ارتش سرنگونی امپراتوری هخامنشی که بعد از آنها سوخته کتابخانه سلطنتی و آرشیو که در آن مقدس متون مقدس اوستا در نگه داشته شدند شکل اصلی توسط پیامبر زرتشت نوشته شده است. فقط کسری از متن زنده می ماند که بعد از آن توسط سازمان کشیش چند از زرتشتی در دوران قرون وسطی زمانی که ایران بود رو به تهدید حمله اعراب که تحت خلافت اموی را سرنگون امپراتوری فارسی بازنویسی شده و به طور کامل اجرا قوانین مختلف از جمله Jizya که حتی ایرانیان مورد استفاده قرار به تحمیل شده بر غیر Zarathushtra و ماموریت های سازمان یافته تبدیل شد به انجام تبدیل غیر مسلمانان به اسلام که در آن پس از قرن 7th آنها با دو انتخاب مانده بود یا به مناطق دیگر مهاجرت بی طرف جایی که آنها دولت قابل قبول تر و یا خود را به دین اسلام .

کتاب مذهبی :
اوستا کتاب مقدس زرتشت مقدس در اصل توسط قدیمی در ایران زبان اوستایی نوشته شده است. پس از از دست دادن آموزش به علت اصلی این حادثه آتش سوزی از کتابخانه سلطنتی توسط تهاجم الکساندر سوم مقدونی فقط کسری از آن جان سالم به در. در طول قرن 7th تحت خلافت اموی کشیش چند از زرتشت سازمان یافته آموزه های زرتشت. در حال حاضر در دسترس متن مقدس دینی است به چندین کتاب هستند که در خط اوستایی نوشته شده است تقسیم شده باقی می ماند تا به امروز هستند گاتها ، Yasna ، Visperad و Vendidad. همراه با این متون عمومی خانواده کتاب اوستا به نام نماز Khordeh ، که حاوی Yashts و Siroza. بقیه مواد را از اوستا نامیده می شود. “قطعات اوستایی” # :. دوم کتاب که در دسترس هستند اما نه کتابهای آسمانی اما آثار مذهبی در قرون وسطی به خط پهلوی نوشته شده است : Denkard ، Bundahishn ، Menog – Khrad من ، انتخاب از Zadspram ، Jamasp Namag ، رسائل از Manucher ، Rivayats ، Dadestan – من – Denig ، و Arda Namag Viraf. همه متون فارسی میانه زرتشتی در طول این مدت نوشته شده هستند با این نسخهها کار ثانویه در مذهب در نظر گرفته شده ، و کتاب نیست. با این حال ، این متون دارای نفوذ قوی در دین است.

آیین و باورها :

Parsis یا زرتشتیان ‘آیا در تناسخ اعتقاد ندارند. در دین زرتشتی جسد میزبان از فروپاشی و یا druj است. تمرین از قرار گرفتن در معرض مراسم فقط توسط Parsis از شبه قاره هند که در آن غیر قانونی است در “برج خاموشان” در حالی که در آن روش های انهدامی دیگر در دسترس هستند زرتشتیان یا سوزاندن یا دفن در قبر است که با ملات آهک cased نیست انجام می شود. ازدواج در خارج از مذهب منجر به اخراج از جامعه است. پذیرش کودک در جامعه تنها در صورتی که پدر است پارسی در غیر این صورت هیچ پذیرش وجود دارد. تمرین هایی از این دست است منجر به کاهش بیشتر از جامعه رنج می برد که در حال حاضر از نرخ مرگ و میر نوزادان بالا از 200 (میلادی) در 1000 (میلادی). با توجه به این اصل صندلی جامعه زرتشتی مستقر در لس آنجلس و پاریس تصمیم گرفته است برای قطع این نوع از سیستم و دعوت یا تشویق زوج را قبول شریک در خارج از ایمان خود. آنها در آب و آتش به عنوان اصلی به دو شکل از زندگی اعتقاد دارند. آیین های پرستش و یا می تواند در وجود هر گونه منبع نور است که درخشش انجام می شود. آتش معبد جایی که فعالیت های مانور مذهبی مانند ازدواج ، خلوص ، ایمان مذهبی مراسم پذیرش برای کودکان و دیگر آیین های مهم روزانه انجام شده است.

جشنواره ها :
Nouruz * ، روز سال نو. در نوع Fasli / باستانی از تقویم زرتشتی ، این روز همیشه روز اعتدال بهاری (اسمی سقوط در تاریخ 21 مارس).
در Shahenshahi و تقویمهای Kadmi ، که کار را برای سالهای کبیسه حساب نیست ، روز سال نو است زیرفشار پیش توسط بیش از 200 روز است. این دو مدل دومی از تقویم ، جایی که تنها توسط زرتشتیان از هند به دنبال ، جشن اعتدال بهاری به عنوان Jamshed – Nouroz من ، با روز پس از آن که جشن سال نو در ماه ژوئیه / اوت به عنوان Pateti (پایین را ببینید).

* Pateti ، “(روز) طلب مغفرت” (از patet “اعترافات” ، از این رو نیز توبه و طلب مغفرت). این در واقع یک روز از درون گرایی ، و در اصل در روز (و یا در 5 روز گذشته) آخرین سال تقویم رخ داده است. بنا به دلایل مربوط به مناسبت های روز تنها بودن بیش از شش روز مشاهده ، (آخرین روز) Pateti آمد به سقوط در (روز اول) سال نو جشن روز ، و در هند (Shahenshahi / Kadmi تقویمهای) به دست می آمد “جشن “در روز سال نو خود را. اگر چه نام بوده است را حفظ ، Pateti است و دیگر روز از درون گرایی.

* جشن سده ، اواسط زمستان به طور سنتی جشنواره 100 روز (از این رو جشن سده) پس از روز اول زمستان جشن گرفته ، و یا معادل آن ، 50 روز (100 شب و روز) قبل از روز سال نو. از آنجا که این جشنواره شامل ساختمان اتش ، آن هم به نام ادار – Jashan.

* زرتشت بدون Diso ، سالگرد مرگ زرتشت است ، که در روز جشن 11th (Khorshed) از ماه 10th (جواهری). در تقویم فصلی ، سالگرد مرگ زرتشت می افتد در تاریخ 26 دسامبر.
* خرداد Sal ، که جشن سالگرد تولد زرتشت. در این روز ([ک] hordad) 6th از 1 ماه (فروردین) می افتد. در تقویم فصلی ، سالروز تولد زرتشت می افتد در تاریخ 26 مارس.

تقویم زرتشتی :

Shahenshahi Kadmi و انواع دیگری از تقویم را بین calcate سال کبیسه و از این رو در روز از سال تقویم میلادی که بر روی این روزها هستند شیفت جشن پیش رو با هم نیست. نوع سوم که در تقویم زرتشتی ، شناخته شده به صورت Fasli (در هند) و یا باستانی (در ایران) ، intercalcates با توجه به قواعد تقویم گرگوری و در نتیجه باقی مانده است همزمان با فصل.

ماه نام (با نامهای اوستایی زبان در پرانتز) ، در دنباله ترتیبی استفاده می شود امروز ، عبارتند از :
1. Frawardin (Frauuašinąm)

2. Ardwahisht (Vahištahe Ašahe)

3. خرداد (Haurvatātō)

4. تیر (Tištryehe)

5. Amurdad (Amərətātō)

6. Shahrewar (Vairyehe Xšaθrahe)

7. Mihr (Miθrahe)

8. آبان (Apąm)

9. Adur (Āθrō)

10. جواهری (Daθušō [Ahurahe مزدا])

11. Wahman (Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō)

12. Spendarmad (Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš)

جمعیت :

همانطور که در هر 2004 تخمین می زند تعدادی از زرتشتیان سراسر جهان در بین 145.000 و 210.000 تخمین زده شده است. در سرشماری سال 2001 هند ، شماره 69،601 Parsis ، به نمایندگی از حدود 0.006 درصد از کل جمعیت از هند ، با غلظت در داخل و اطراف شهرستان از بمبئی. با توجه به سرعت کم هنگام تولد و نرخ بالای مهاجرت ، جمعیتی که پروژه روند تا سال 2020 خواهد Parsis تعداد تنها در حدود 23،000 یا 0.002 درصد از کل جمعیت هند است. Parsis در آن صورت جامعه به آن می شود را متوقف خواهد شد و دارای برچسب “قبیله”. سال 2008 ، از تولد تا مرگ نسبت 1:5-200 (میلادی) در هر سال به مرگ 1،000 بود.

در ایران ، مهاجرت ، خارج از ازدواج و نرخ تولد نوزادان کم هستند به همین ترتیب به کاهش جمعیت زرتشتیان ، که در حال حاضر در حدود کمتر از 20،000 پیشرو.

Important Events on March 22

March 22: World Water Day

Nader Shah, Shah of Iran

  • 1638 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony expelled Anne Hutchinson from its ranks for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.
  • 1736 – Under orders from Shah of Iran Nader Shah (pictured) to plunder Delhi, India, Persian troops killed at least 20,000 Indians, forcing Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah to beg for mercy.
  • 1913 – Phan Xich Long, the self-proclaimed Emperor of Vietnam, was arrested for organising a revolt against the colonial rule of French Indochina, which was nevertheless carried out by his supporters the following day.
  • 1984 – In what would be the longest and costliest criminal trial in United States history, teachers at the McMartin preschool in Manhattan Beach, California, were falsely charged with satanic ritual abuse of schoolchildren.
  • 1995 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov of the Soyuz programme returned from the Mir space station after 437 days in space, setting a record for the longest spaceflight.

Important Events on March 21

March 21: Independence Day in Namibia (1990); Naw-Rúz in the Bahá’í calendar; World Down Syndrome Day; Mother’s Day in the Arab world

Rudolf Christoph von Gersdorff

  • 1909 – The remains of the Báb, one of three central figures of the Bahá’í Faith, were interred by `Abdu’l-Bahá in Haifa, present-day Israel.
  • 1943 – World War II: Wermacht officer Rudolf Christoph von Gersdorff (pictured) attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bombing, but had to abort the plan at the last minute.
  • 1946 – The Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League signed Kenny Washington, making him the first African American player in the league since 1933.
  • 2002 – British schoolgirl Amanda Dowler was abducted on her way home from Heathside School in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey.
  • 2006 – A man using a hammer smashed the statue of Phra Phrom in the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok, Thailand, and was subsequently beaten to death by bystanders.

Important Events on March 20

March 20: Purim ends at sundown (Judaism, 2011); Equinox Earth Day (2011); Nowruz in Iran, Central Asia, and Zoroastrianism (2011); Independence Day in Tunisia (1956)

Chemical structure of Zidovudine (AZT)

  • 235 – Maximinus Thrax succeeded to the throne of the Roman Empire, the first of the so-called barracks emperors who gained power by virtue of his command of the army.
  • 1602 – The Dutch East India Company was established.
  • 1923 – Arts Club of Chicago hosted the opening of Pablo Picasso’s first United States showing, entitled Original Drawings by Pablo Picasso, becoming an early proponent of modern art in the U.S.
  • 1944 – World War II: Four thousand U.S. Marines made a landing on Emirau Island in the Bismarck Archipelago to develop an airbase as part of Operation Cartwheel.
  • 1987 – The antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) (chemical structure pictured) became the first antiviral medication approved for use against HIV and AIDS.

Bahrain stuck between Saudi Arabia and Iran

While protesters in Libya are attacked by armed insurgents the country is met with the UN resolution on no-fly zone and expanded sanctions. Bahrain’s security forces shoots down unarmed civilian demonstrators in the streets, breaks into private homes and have blocked the country’s largest hospital – where doctors cannot escape and patients cannot get in.

But still Bahrain’s brutal ruler Hamad al-Khalifa and his regime is not brought before the UN Security Council. Maybe it’s because this is a country that both the West and the Arab world need.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has expressed his deepest concern for what is happening in Bahrain and EU and NATO has asked authorities in the country to refrain from violence and resolve problems in the country through political dialogue.

The attack on demonstrators in Manama and other cities Wednesday was extremely brutal and reminded of Kadhafis forces. 6 people were killed and hundreds must have been injured. But the most serious is the situation at Salmaniya Hospital in the capital Manama, Bahrain’s largest and most modern. For some reason, the authorities found that the staff of this hospital is the demonstrator’s supporters – and must be punished – in a manner that violates everything called human rights.

SECURITY FORCES, according to eyewitnesses from both Saudi Arabia and Bahrain surrounded the hospital as no patients were allowed to enter, however, doctors and nurses who have tried to move out to retrieve the wounded, gets beaten up. Medicines and medical supplies is needed and cry for help from hospitals from telephone alone says; “Why will not the world help us?”

Now, sick people, whether they are shot or are acutely ill, brought to smaller hospitals with equipment that in many cases is not good enough to take care of their injuries. The government cares little for so long as the world is most concerned with Kadhafi.

What makes Bahrain so special?

As a small island in the Persian Gulf, the island is strategically important to the oil-rich area. With growing criticism of the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain has become more important and with such U.S. interests, the country has also importance in the NATO context. The Sunni Muslim King Hamad is a good ally of the West, so he has a far greater scope in terms of violence than less good friends. So it is just.

But Bahrain is also important for the Arab countries, not least for the six members of the Gulf Council GCC, in which Saudi Arabia plays the lead role. Golf Council cooperates politically, militarily and economically. In the geopolitical game is primarily one enemy you are interested in, and it is Iran.

Nearly 70% of the citizens of Bahrain’s Shiite Muslims, but Arabs . The possibility that they will team up with their Persian-Iranian co-religionists is small, but this argument is used as a pretext for the necessity of maintaining “stability” in Bahrain. Saudi Arabia has in principle a more urgent problem. The majority of the population in the oil-rich Al-Hasa province in eastern Saudi Arabia’s Shiite’s and the Saudi royal family fears a spillover effect from Bahrain. It is perhaps the main reason that the country Monday sent 1,000 soldiers to Bahrain to help the King Hamad to quell the revolt.

Important Events on March 19

March 19: Purim begins at sunset (Judaism, 2011); Saint Joseph’s Day in Western Christianity; Father’s Day in various countries

Aircraft carrier USS Franklin being attacked

  • 1279 – The Song Dynasty in Imperial China ended with a victory by the Yuan Dynasty at the Battle of Yamen off the coast of Xinhui, Guangdong Province.
  • 1687 – The search for the mouth of the Mississippi River led by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle ended with a mutiny and his murder in present-day Texas.
  • 1915 – Pluto was photographed for the first time, 15 years before it was officially discovered by Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory.
  • 1945 – World War II: A single Japanese aircraft bombed the American aircraft carrier USS Franklin (pictured), killing over 700 of her crew and crippling the ship.
  • 1978 – In response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the United Nations called on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon, and established the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon.

Important Events on March 18

March 18

King George I of Greece

  • 1241 – Mongol invasion of Poland: Mongols overwhelmed the Polish armies of Sandomierz and Kraków provinces in the Battle of Chmielnik and plundered the abandoned city of Kraków.
  • 1913 – King George I of Greece (pictured) was assassinated in Thessaloniki by Alexandros Schinas, who had no apparent motive.
  • 1925 – The Tri-State Tornado spawned in Missouri, traveled over 219 miles (352 km) across Illinois and Indiana, and killed 695 along the way, making it the tornado with the longest continuous track ever recorded in the world and the deadliest in U.S. history.
  • 1970 – The National Assembly of Cambodia ousted Prince Norodom Sihanouk as head of state, and Prime Minister Lon Nol invoked emergency powers to take over.
  • 1996 – The deadliest fire in Philippine history burned a nightclub in Quezon City, leaving 162 dead.

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